|Titre :||NPAideS: a drug-checking study among 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) users (2023)|
|Auteurs :||T. WILLEMAN ; N. GRUNDIG ; C. POCHON ; D. MICHELS ; N. CHARPENTIER ; H. EYSSERIC-GUÉRIN ; N. FOUILHE SAM-LAI ; F. STANKE-LABESQUE ; B. REVOL|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Harm Reduction Journal (Vol.20, 2023)|
|Article en page(s) :||art. 96|
|Discipline :||PRO (Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods)|
Thésaurus géographiqueFRANCE ; AUVERGNE-RHONE-ALPES
Thésaurus mots-clésREDUCTION DES RISQUES ET DES DOMMAGES ; DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; TEST ; PURETE ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; MESURES QUALITATIVES ; MESURES QUANTITATIVES ; CATHINONES ; CHEMSEX ; TOXICOLOGIE ; USAGER ; ATTENTE
BACKGROUND: 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) has been available on the European drug market for several years, but an increase in its availability seems to have occurred around 2020, associated with reports of harm and death. We aimed to analyze the composition of the supposed 3-MMC samples purchased and its concordance with the assumed composition of the drug.
METHODS: A prospective multicenter (n = 6) study was conducted between February 2021 and September 2021 in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, France. The inclusion criteria were: 3-MMC users over 18 years of age in contact with a community-based organization (CBO) called AIDES. Consumption was evaluated with an anonymized questionnaire and samples of 3-MMC powder were analyzed with a combination of qualitative (GC-MS) and quantitative methods (UPLC-MS/MS), to compare the assumed and real compositions of the products purchased.
RESULTS: We studied 45 samples provided by 33 users. The study population was predominantly male (91%), with a median age of 40 years, most were university graduates and regular users of 3-MMC. Intravenous drug use was reported by 15.2% of the population. Most of the users bought their 3-MMC online via the Clear Web. Drug testing was requested by 86% of the users, highlighting the need for this type of harm reduction strategy. The purity of the 3-MMC powder samples tested ranged from 21 to 98%. Other NPS drugs, such as 4-CEC (4-chloroethcathinone), 4-MMC, and 2-fluorodeschloroketamine (2-FDCK), supplied as methoxphenidine (MXP), were also detected.
CONCLUSION: This prospective study shows that 3-MMC purity and dose vary considerably. It also describes the characteristics of 3-MMC users and their expectations of a drug-checking program. Our data suggest that drug-checking services may be useful in this population. Health associations and laboratories should work together to help increase access to such programs.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Refs biblio. :||30|
|Affiliation :||Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEIP-Addictovigilance, CHU Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France|