|Titre :||Use characteristics and harm potential of ecstasy in The Netherlands (2021)|
|Auteurs :||J. VAN AMSTERDAM ; J. G. RAMAEKERS ; T. NABBEN ; W. VAN DEN BRINK|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy (Vol.28, n°2, April 2021)|
|Article en page(s) :||107-117|
|Discipline :||EPI (Epidémiologie / Epidemiology)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEMDMA-ECSTASY ; CRIMINALITE ; PREVALENCE ; POLYCONSOMMATION ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; QUALITE ; EFFET SECONDAIRE ; TRAFIC
Introduction: Ecstasy (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug, but its illegal production and trade in the Netherlands have developed into a serious public order and ecological problem which endanger and question the harm reduction approach of the Dutch ecstasy policy.
Methods: The market characteristics, adverse health effects, risk profile, and link to criminal activity of ecstasy were reviewed.
Results: Ecstasy is often used in combination with other substances (i.e. polydrug use). Compared to several other illicit drugs and alcohol, ecstasy has a very low abuse and dependence liability and, as yet, there is little evidence of long-term harm. A potential health risk associated with ecstasy is acute hyperthermia, however this occurs at an unknown incidence rate and seems to be more prevalent when ecstasy is consumed in combination with heavy exercise at high ambient temperatures or when used in combination with other substances, including alcohol. Organized crime related to the production and trafficking of ecstasy in the Netherlands is a growing problem.
Conclusions: This review provides a science-based summary that can be used to assist the public and political debate surrounding future Dutch ecstasy policy to reduce ecstasy-related organized crime while maintaining the principle of harm reduction.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Sous-type de document :||Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Affiliation :||Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands|