|Titre :||The epidemiology of benzodiazepine misuse: A systematic review (2019)|
|Auteurs :||V. R. VOTAW ; R. GEYER ; M. M. RIESELBACH ; R. K. MCHUGH|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Vol.200, July 2019)|
|Article en page(s) :||95-114|
|Discipline :||EPI (Epidémiologie / Epidemiology)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEBENZODIAZEPINES ; USAGE DETOURNE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ; COMORBIDITE ; PSYCHOTROPES ; MEDICAMENTS ; ANXIOLYTIQUES ; PROFIL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIQUE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; PRESCRIPTION MEDICALE ; MOTIVATION
Background: Benzodiazepine misuse is a growing public health problem, with increases in benzodiazepine-related overdose deaths and emergency room visits in recent years. However, relatively little attention has been paid to this emergent problem. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies on benzodiazepine misuse to identify key findings, limitations, and future directions for research.
Methods: PubMed and PsychINFO databases were searched through February 2019 for peer-reviewed publications on benzodiazepine misuse (e.g., use without a prescription; at a higher frequency or dose than prescribed). Eligibility criteria included human studies that focused on the prevalence, trends, correlates, motives, patterns, sources, and consequences of benzodiazepine misuse.
Results: The search identified 1970 publications, and 351 articles were eligible for data extraction and inclusion. In 2017, benzodiazepines and other tranquilizers were the third most commonly misused illicit or prescription drug in the U.S. (approximately 2.2% of the population). Worldwide rates of misuse appear to be similar to those reported in the U.S. Factors associated with misuse include other substance use, receipt of a benzodiazepine prescription, and psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Benzodiazepine misuse encompasses heterogeneous presentations of motives, patterns, and sources. Moreover, misuse is associated with myriad poor outcomes, including mortality, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, poor self-reported quality of life, criminality, and continued substance use during treatment.
Conclusions: Benzodiazepine misuse is a worldwide public health concern that is associated with a number of concerning consequences. Findings from the present review have implications for identifying subgroups who could benefit from prevention and treatment efforts, critical points for intervention, and treatment targets.
We reviewed epidemiological studies on benzodiazepine misuse.
Polysubstance use and psychiatric distress increase risk of misuse.
Benzodiazepines are commonly co-ingested with other substances.
Coping with negative affect and sleep are the most common motives for misuse.
Misuse is associated with poor outcomes, including morbidity and mortality.
|Domaine :||Autres substances / Other substances|
|Sous-type de document :||Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Affiliation :||Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA|