|Titre :||4-Methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4'-DMAR, 4,4'-dimethylaminorex): availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity (2015)|
|Auteurs :||J. GLANVILLE ; P. I. DARGAN ; D. M. WOOD|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental (Vol.30, n°3, May 2015)|
|Article en page(s) :||193-198|
|Discipline :||PRO (Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEDROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; TOXICITE ; INTERNET ; PRIX ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; PREVALENCE ; TYPE D'USAGE ; EFFET SECONDAIRE
Objective: 4-Methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR)) is a derivative of the controlled substances aminorex and 4-methylaminorex marketed as a potential novel psychoactive substance. This paper brings together the published scientific and 'grey' literature to understand 4,4'-DMAR as a novel psychoactive substance.
Methods: Searches of the published scientific and 'grey' literature, using the keywords '4-methyl-euphoria', '4-methyl-U4Euh', '4-M-4-MAR', '4,4-dimethylaminorex', '4,4'-DMAR', 'para-methyl-4-aminorex' and 'Serotoni', were undertaken to identify information on the availability, prevalence of use and desired/unwanted effects of 4,4'-DMAR.
Results: No studies have reported the prevalence of use of 4,4'-DMAR. Internet snapshot studies in April and May 2014 showed availability of 4,4'-DMAR from one and two Internet suppliers respectively. Price decreased with increasing purchase amounts from €12/g for a 1-g purchase to €2.20/g for a 100-g purchase in April 2014. Internet discussion fora suggest that the desired and unwanted effects of 4,4'-DMAR are similar to those seen with other sympathomimetic drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and mephedrone, although the duration of unwanted effects and 'comedown' appear to be longer. Unwanted effects were reported at doses of 5-200 mg, which overlaps with the reported doses (10-200 mg) associated with desired effects. 4,4'-DMAR has been detected, along with other drugs, in 27 deaths in Europe; the contribution of the 4,4'-DMAR in these deaths has not been established.
Conclusions: Currently, there appears to limited availability of 4,4'-DMAR; therefore, use is likely to be low. Its desired and unwanted effects appear similar to other sympathomimetic recreational drugs such as methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or mephedrone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Sous-type de document :||Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Affiliation :||Clinical Toxicology, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK|