|Titre :||The health consequences of smoking - 50 years of progress. A report of the surgeon general|
|Auteurs :||U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|Type de document :||Rapport|
|Editeur :||U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office on Smoking and Health, 2014|
|Autre Editeur :||Atlanta, GA : CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)|
|Format :||943 p. / graph., tabl., index|
|Discipline :||PAT (Pathologie organique / Organic pathology)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEHISTOIRE ; SANTE PUBLIQUE ; TABAC ; NICOTINE ; PATHOLOGIE ORGANIQUE ; CANCER ; CONSOMMATION ; POLITIQUE ; APPAREIL RESPIRATOIRE ; PREVENTION ; APPAREIL CARDIOVASCULAIRE ; REPRODUCTION ; MORTALITE ; MORBIDITE ; TABAGISME PASSIF ; INDUSTRIE DU TABAC
Major conclusions from the report:
1. The century-long epidemic of cigarette smoking has caused an enormous avoidable public health tragedy. Since the first Surgeon General's report in 1964 more than 20 million premature deaths can be attributed to cigarette smoking.
2. The tobacco epidemic was initiated and has been sustained by the aggressive strategies of the tobacco industry, which has deliberately misled the public on the risks of smoking cigarettes.
3. Since the 1964 Surgeon General’s report, cigarette smoking has been causally linked to diseases of nearly all organs of the body, to diminished health status, and to harm to the fetus. Even 50 years after the first Surgeon General’s report, research continues to newly identify diseases caused by smoking, including such common diseases as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and colorectal cancer.
4. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke has been causally linked to cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, and to adverse effects on the health of infants and children.
5. The disease risks from smoking by women have risen sharply over the last 50 years and are now equal to those for men for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases.
6. In addition to causing multiple diseases, cigarette smoking has many other adverse effects on the body, such as causing inflammation and impairing immune function.
7. Although cigarette smoking has declined significantly since 1964, very large disparities in tobacco use remain across groups defined by race, ethnicity, educational level, and socioeconomic status and across regions of the country.
8. Since the 1964 Surgeon General’s report, comprehensive tobacco control programs and policies have been proven effective for controlling tobacco use. Further gains can be made with the full, forceful, and sustained use of these measures.
9. The burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products; rapid elimination of their use will dramatically reduce this burden.
10. For 50 years the Surgeon General’s reports on smoking and health have provided a critical scientific foundation for public health action directed at reducing tobacco use and preventing tobacco-related disease and premature death.
|Note de contenu :||
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Chapter 1. Introduction, summary, and conclusions
Chapter 2. Fifty years of change, 1964-2014
Chapter 3. Producing the Surgeon General's report from 1964-2014: process and purpose
Chapter 4. Advances in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking: from 1964-2014
Chapter 5. Nicotine
Chapter 6. Cancer
Chapter 7. Respiratory diseases
Chapter 8. Cardiovascular diseases
Chapter 9. Reproductive outcomes
Chapter 10. Other specific outcomes
Chapter 11. General morbidity and all-cause mortality
Chapter 12. Smoking-attributable morbidity, mortality, and economic costs
Chapter 13. Patterns of tobacco use among U.S. youth, young adults, and adults
Chapter 14. Current status of tobacco control
Chapter 15. The changing landscape of tobacco control - current status and future directions
Chapter 16. A vision for ending the epidemic: toward a society free of tobacco-caused death and disease
|Domaine :||Tabac / Tobacco|
|Refs biblio. :||200|
|Affiliation :||U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta, USA|
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