|Titre :||Use of alcohol and drugs by Norwegian employees: a pilot study using questionnaires and analysis of oral fluid (2010)|
|Auteurs :||H. GJERDE ; A. S. CHRISTOPHERSEN ; I. S. MOAN ; B. YTTREDAL ; J. M. WALSH ; P. T. NORMANN ; J. MORLAND|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (Vol.5, n°13, 2010)|
|Article en page(s) :||8 p.|
|Discipline :||PRO (Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEALCOOL ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; MILIEU PROFESSIONNEL ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; SALIVE ; DEPISTAGE ; PSYCHOTROPES
BACKGROUND: The use of alcohol and drugs may affect workplace safety and productivity. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in Norway.
METHODS: Employee recruitment methods with or without individual follow-up were compared. The employees filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid. Samples were analysed for alcohol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG; a biological marker of recent large alcohol intake), psychoactive medicinal drugs and illegal drugs.
RESULTS: Participation rates with and without individual follow-up were 96% and 68%, respectively. Alcohol was negative (2.2 ng/ml) in 2.1% of the samples. In-efficiency or hangover at work during the past year was reported by 24.3%, while 6.2% had been absent from work due to the use of alcohol. The combination of self-report and analytical testing indicated that medicinal or illegal drugs had been used during the last 48 h by 5.1% and 1.7% of the participants, respectively; while only 4.2% and 0.4% admitted the use in the questionnaire.
CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported data suggest that hangover after drinking alcohol appears to be the largest substance abuse problem at Norwegian workplaces, resulting in absence and inefficiency at work. Analysis of oral fluid revealed that the use of illegal drugs was more common than drinking alcohol before working or at the workplace. The analysis of oral fluid may be a valuable tool in obtaining additional information on alcohol and drug use compared to using questionnaires alone.
|Domaine :||Alcool / Alcohol ; Autres substances / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Refs biblio. :||42|
|Affiliation :||Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway|