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Addiction . Vol.113, n°2Mention de date : February 2018
Paru le : 01/02/2018
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All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours [Addiction debate] / P. S. MEIER ; A. WARDE ; J. HOLMES in Addiction, Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018)
Titre : All drinking is not equal: how a social practice theory lens could enhance public health research on alcohol and other health behaviours [Addiction debate] Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : P. S. MEIER ; A. WARDE ; J. HOLMES Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : 206-213 Note générale : Commentaries:
- Practising drinking, practising health. Duff C., p. 214-215.
- Do practice approaches go far enough in shifting focus from the individual? Fraser S., p. 215-216.
- A new resource for examining and responding to the contexts of alcohol-related harm. Giesbrecht N., p. 216-217.
- Social practice theory and the study of how we drink. Meier P., Holmes J., Warde A., p. 217-219.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; INEGALITE DE SANTE ; SANTE PUBLIQUE ; THEORIE ; SOCIOLOGIE ; RECHERCHE ; TYPE D'USAGE ; COMPORTEMENT
Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Résumé : Background: The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice.
Argument: Practices are conceptualized as routinized types of human activity that are made up of, and can be recognized by, the coming together of several interwoven elements in the same situation (e.g. materials, meanings, skills, locations, timings). Different practices are interconnected - they can occur simultaneously (e.g. drinking and eating), hold each other in place (e.g. after-work drinks) or compete for time (e.g. parenting versus socializing). Applying these principles to alcohol research means shifting attention away from individuals and their behaviours and instead making drinking practices an important unit of analysis. Studying how drinking practices emerge, persist and decay over time, how they spread through populations and local or social networks and how they relate to other activities of everyday life promises new insights into how, why, where, when and with whom drinking and getting drunk occur.
Conclusions: Theories of practice provide a framework for generating new explanations of stability and change in alcohol consumption and other health behaviours. This framework offers potential for novel insights into the persistence of health inequalities, unanticipated consequences of policies and interventions and new interventions targets through understanding which elements of problematic practices are likely to be most modifiable. We hope this will generate novel insights into the emergence and decay of drinking practices over time and into the geographical and socio-demographic patterning of drinking. Theories of practice-informed research would consider how alcohol policies and population-level interventions might differentially affect different drinking practices.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 52 Affiliation : School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, UK Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018) . - 206-213[article]Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders: a systematic review with direct and network meta-analyses on nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen and topiramate / C. PALPACUER ; R. DUPREZ ; A. HUNEAU ; C. LOCHER ; R. BOUSSAGEON ; B. LAVIOLLE ; F. NAUDET in Addiction, Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018)
Titre : Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders: a systematic review with direct and network meta-analyses on nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen and topiramate Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : C. PALPACUER ; R. DUPREZ ; A. HUNEAU ; C. LOCHER ; R. BOUSSAGEON ; B. LAVIOLLE ; F. NAUDET Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : 220-237 Note générale : Commentary: Do small effects on total alcohol consumption translate into clinical practice? Donoghue K., p. 238-239. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; TRAITEMENT ; PHARMACOTHERAPIE ; NALTREXONE ; ACAMPROSATE ; BACLOFENE ; DEPENDANCE ; EFFICACITE ; COMPARAISON
Mots-clés : consommation contrôlée Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : Background and Aims: Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is an emerging concept. Our objective was to explore the comparative effectiveness of drugs used in this indication.
Design: Systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in non-abstinent adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence or AUDs. Two independent reviewers selected published and unpublished studies on Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration, and extracted data.
Setting: Thirty-two RCTs.
Participants: A total of 6036 patients.
Measurements: The primary outcome was total alcohol consumption (TAC). Other consumption outcomes and health outcomes were considered as secondary outcomes.
Findings: No study provided direct comparisons between drugs. A risk of incomplete outcome data was identified in 26 studies (81%) and risk of selective outcome reporting in 17 (53%). Nalmefene [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29, -0.10; I² = 0%], baclofen (SMD = -1.00, 95% CI = -1.80, -0.19; one study) and topiramate (SMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.12, -0.42; I² = 0%) showed superiority over placebo on TAC. No efficacy was observed for naltrexone or acamprosate. Similar results were observed for other consumption outcomes, except for baclofen (the favourable outcome on TAC was not reproduced). The number of withdrawals for safety reasons increased under nalmefene and naltrexone. No treatment demonstrated any harm reduction (no study was powered to explore health outcomes). Indirect comparisons suggested that topiramate was superior to nalmefene, naltrexone and acamprosate on consumption outcomes, but its safety profile is known to be poor.
Conclusions: There is currently no high-grade evidence for pharmacological treatment to control drinking using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder. Some treatments show low to medium efficacy in reducing drinking across a range of studies with a high risk of bias. None demonstrates any benefit on health outcomes.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Sous-type de document : Méta-analyse / Meta-analysis ; Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 75 Affiliation : Inserm, CIC 1414 Clinical Investigation Centre, Rennes, France Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018) . - 220-237[article]New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption / K. D. SHIELD ; C. MARANT MICALLEF ; C. HILL ; M. TOUVIER ; P. ARWIDSON ; C. BONALDI ; P. FERRARI ; F. BRAY ; I. SOERJOMATARAM in Addiction, Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018)
Titre : New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : K. D. SHIELD ; C. MARANT MICALLEF ; C. HILL ; M. TOUVIER ; P. ARWIDSON ; C. BONALDI ; P. FERRARI ; F. BRAY ; I. SOERJOMATARAM Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : 247-256 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; CANCER ; INCIDENCE ; MORBIDITE ; TYPE D'USAGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background and aims: Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer. Thus, to inform policy decisions, this study estimated the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to alcohol consumption generally and to light (= 40 g/day among women; >= 60 g/day among men), and the number of cancer cases that would have been prevented assuming a previous 10% decrease in alcohol consumption.
Design: New cancer cases attributable to alcohol were estimated using a population-attributable fraction methodology, assuming a 10-year latency period between exposure and diagnosis.
Setting and participants: Population of France, 2015.
Measurements: Alcohol consumption was estimated by coordinating data from the Baromètre santé 2005, a national representative survey (n = 30 455), with data from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Relative risks were obtained from meta-analyses. Cancer data were estimated based on data from the French Cancer Registries Network. Uncertainty intervals (UI) were estimated using a Monte Carlo procedure.
Findings: In France in 2015, an estimated 27 894 (95% UI = 24 287-30 996) or 7.9% of all new cancer cases were attributable to alcohol. The number of alcohol-attributable new cancer cases was similar for both men and women, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas having the largest attributable fraction (57.7%). Light, moderate, heavy and former alcohol drinking were responsible for 1.5, 1.3, 4.4 and 0.6% of all new cancer cases, respectively. Lastly, if there had been a previous 10% reduction in alcohol consumption, 2178 (95% UI = 1687-2601) new cancer cases would have been prevented.
Conclusions: Alcohol consumption in France appears to cause almost 8% of new cancer cases, with light and moderate drinking contributing appreciably to this burden. A 10% drop in drinking in France would have prevented more than 2000 (estimated) new cancer cases in 2015.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 64 Affiliation : Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018) . - 247-256[article]Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence / A. S. SELYA ; J. S. ROSE ; L. DIERKER ; D. HEDEKER ; R. J. MERMELSTEIN in Addiction, Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018)
Titre : Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. S. SELYA ; J. S. ROSE ; L. DIERKER ; D. HEDEKER ; R. J. MERMELSTEIN Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : 325-333 Note générale : Commentary: Advantages in the consideration of causal mechanisms for studies of gateway e-cigarette use. Cahn Z., Berg C.J., p. 334-335. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; CIGARETTE ELECTRONIQUE ; CIGARETTE ; NICOTINE ; DEPENDANCE ; POLYCONSOMMATION ; MODELE STATISTIQUE ; THEORIE DE L'ESCALADE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background and Aims: The implications of the rapid rise in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use remain unknown. We examined mutual associations between e-cigarette use, conventional cigarette use and nicotine dependence over time to (1) test the association between e-cigarette use and later conventional smoking (both direct and via nicotine dependence), (2) test the converse associations and (3) determine the strongest pathways predicting each product's use.
Design: Data from four annual waves of a prospective cohort study were analyzed. Path analysis modeled the bidirectional, longitudinal relationships between past-month smoking frequency, past-month e-cigarette frequency and nicotine dependence.
Setting: Chicago area, Illinois, USA.
Participants: A total of 1007 young adult smokers and non-smokers (ages 19-23 years).
Measurements: Frequency of (1) cigarettes and (2) e-cigarettes was the number of days in the past 30 on which the product was used. The Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale measured nicotine dependence to cigarettes.
Findings: E-cigarette use was not associated significantly with later conventional smoking, either directly (beta = 0.021, P = 0.081) or through nicotine dependence (beta = 0.005, P = 0.693). Conventional smoking was associated positively with later e-cigarette use, both directly (beta = 0.118, P Conclusions: Nicotine dependence is not a significant mechanism for e-cigarettes' purported effect on heavier future conventional smoking among young adults. Nicotine dependence may be a mechanism for increases in e-cigarette use among heavier conventional smokers, consistent with e-cigarettes as a smoking reduction tool. Overall, conventional smoking and, to a lesser extent, its resulting nicotine dependence, are the strongest drivers or signals of later cigarette and e-cigarette use.
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 37 Affiliation : Department of Population Health, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.113, n°2 (February 2018) . - 325-333[article]