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Addiction . Vol.110, n°4Mention de date : April 2015
Paru le : 01/04/2015
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Influence of different drugs on HIV risk in people who inject: systematic review and meta-analysis / I. TAVITIAN-EXLEY ; P. VICKERMAN ; F. I. BASTOS ; M. C. BOILY in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
Titre : Influence of different drugs on HIV risk in people who inject: systematic review and meta-analysis Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : I. TAVITIAN-EXLEY ; P. VICKERMAN ; F. I. BASTOS ; M. C. BOILY Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 572-584 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
VIH ; USAGER ; INJECTION ; INCIDENCE ; POLYCONSOMMATION ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; INFECTION ; COCAINE ; AMPHETAMINES ; OPIACES ; HEROINE ; VOIE D'ADMINISTRATION
Discipline : MAL Maladies infectieuses / Infectious diseases Résumé : Aims: To assess systematically the risk of HIV acquisition by type of drug injected across different settings.
Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Databases were searched for studies of HIV incidence in people who inject different drugs (PWID). Pooled HIV incidence rate ratio (IRR) was used to compare HIV risk between injecting and not-injecting a given drug, when possible, or otherwise with those reported not to have injected the substance. Pooled estimates of crude IRR were derived using random-effects models. Variations in IRR were assessed in subgroup analyses, by drug and geographical region.
Results: Of 5779 studies screened, 15 were included. HIV incidence was reported for people injecting cocaine (eight: North America, Europe), amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (four: Western and Eastern Europe, Asia), heroin (11: all settings), opiate-stimulants (four: North America, Western and Eastern Europe) and opiates-sedatives (five: Europe, Asia). HIV risk in cocaine injectors was 3.6 times 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.8-4.7, I² = 0%; n=4) that of non-injectors and 3.0 for ATS injectors (95% CI = 2.2-4.1, I² = 0%; n=2). Higher sexual risk was reported in cohorts injecting stimulants. Compared to not-injecting, HIV IRR was 2.8 (95% CI = 1.7-4.7, I² = 77%; n=6) for all heroin injectors and 3.5 (95% CI = 2.3-5.2, I² = 40%; n=5) for heroin injectors in Asia and Europe.
Conclusion: The risk of HIV acquisition in people who inject drugs appears to vary by drug type but differences are not statistically significant, precluding conclusive grading of risk.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Sous-type de document : Méta-analyse / Meta-analysis ; Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 67 Affiliation : Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 572-584[article]The impact of friends on young adults’ drinking over the course of the evening - an event-level analysis / J. THRUL ; E. KUNTSCHE in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
Titre : The impact of friends on young adults’ drinking over the course of the evening - an event-level analysis Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. THRUL ; E. KUNTSCHE Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 619-626 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; ADULTE JEUNE ; DIFFERENCE DE GENRE ; INFLUENCE ; PAIR ; ABUS ; MILIEU FESTIF
Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Résumé : Aims: To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present, and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present.
Design: Participants used the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to complete a series of cellphone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening over five weekends. A multi-level growth curve model (hourly assessments, clustered within evenings, clustered within individuals) with time-invariant and time-varying covariates was estimated.
Setting: French-speaking Switzerland.
Participants: A total of 183 young adults (53.0% female, mean age = 23.1) who completed 7205 questionnaires on 1441 evenings. Measurements Alcohol consumption and number of friends present assessed at 8?p.m., 9?p.m., 10?p.m., 11?p.m. and midnight. Findings Drinking pace accelerated notably over the course of the evening on Saturdays (b = 0.047; P Conclusions: Among young adults in Switzerland, the number of friends present is associated positively with hourly drinking frequency during the course of weekend evenings. The impact of the drinking group size on alcohol use is stronger for men than women.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 35 Affiliation : Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 619-626[article]A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion / A. B. KELLY ; T. EVANS-WHIPP ; R. SMITH ; G. C. CHAN ; J. W. TOUMBOUROU ; G. C. PATTON ; S. A. HEMPHILL ; W. D. HALL ; R. F. CATALANO in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
Titre : A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non-completion Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. B. KELLY ; T. EVANS-WHIPP ; R. SMITH ; G. C. CHAN ; J. W. TOUMBOUROU ; G. C. PATTON ; S. A. HEMPHILL ; W. D. HALL ; R. F. CATALANO Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 627-635 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE LONGITUDINALE ; ADOLESCENT ; ALCOOL ; POLYCONSOMMATION ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES ; ABANDON SCOLAIRE ; MILIEU SCOLAIRE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aims: Failure to complete high school predicts substantial economic and social disadvantage in adult life. The aim of this study was to determine the longitudinal association of mid-adolescent polydrug use and high school non-completion, relative to other drug use profiles.
Design: A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between polydrug use in three cohorts at grade 9 (age 14-15 years) and school non-completion (reported post-high school).
Setting: A State-representative sample of students across Victoria, Australia.
Participants: A total of 2287 secondary school students from 152 high schools. The retention rate was 85%.
Measurements: The primary outcome was non-completion of grade 12 (assessed at age 19-23 years). At grade 9, predictors included 30-day use of eight drugs, school commitment, academic failure and peer drug use. Other controls included socio-economic status, family relationship quality, depressive symptoms, gender, age and cohort.
Findings: Three distinct classes of drug use were identified - no drug use (31.7%), mainly alcohol use (61.8%) and polydrug use (6.5%). Polydrug users were characterized by high rates of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. In the full model, mainly alcohol users and polydrug users were less likely to complete school than non-drug users [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.03) and OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.45-4.33), respectively, P Conclusions: Mid-adolescent polydrug use in Australia predicts subsequent school non-completion after accounting for a range of potential confounding factors. Adolescents who mainly consume alcohol are also at elevated risk of school non-completion.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 77 Affiliation : Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 627-635[article]Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study / A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
Titre : Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 658-668 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ANGLETERRE ; ROYAUME-UNI
ADOLESCENT ; CANNABIS ; NIVEAU DE CONNAISSANCE ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES ; ABANDON SCOLAIRE ; COHORTE ; DOSE-REPONSE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aims: To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes.
Design: Birth cohort study.
Participants: The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables.
Measurements: The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder.
Findings: In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following adjustment, tobacco appeared to have a consistently stronger effect than cannabis.
Conclusions: Both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. Given the non-specific patterns of association seen and the attenuation of estimates on adjustment, it is possible that these effects arise through non-causal mechanisms, although a causal explanation cannot be discounted.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12827 Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 658-668[article]