Drug and Alcohol Dependence . Vol.138Mention de date : May 2014
Paru le : 01/05/2014
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Impacts of drinking-age laws on mortality in Canada, 1980-2009 / R. C. CALLAGHAN ; M. SANCHES ; J. M. GATLEY ; T. STOCKWELL in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.138 (May 2014)
Titre : Impacts of drinking-age laws on mortality in Canada, 1980-2009 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. C. CALLAGHAN ; M. SANCHES ; J. M. GATLEY ; T. STOCKWELL Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 137-145 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; AGE MINIMUM LEGAL ; ADOLESCENT ; MORTALITE ; LEGISLATION ; DIFFERENCE DE GENRE ; MODELE STATISTIQUE ; CAUSE DE DECES ; ACCIDENT
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : BACKGROUND: Given the recent international debates about the effectiveness and appropriate age setpoints for legislated minimum legal drinking ages (MLDAs), the current study estimates the impact of Canadian MLDAs on mortality among young adults. Currently, the MLDA is 18 years in Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec, and 19 years in the rest of Canada.
METHODS: Using a regression-discontinuity approach, we estimated the impacts of the MLDAs on mortality from 1980 to 2009 among 16- to 22-year-olds in Canada.
RESULTS: In provinces with an MLDA of 18 years, young men slightly older than the MLDA had significant and abrupt increases in all-cause mortality (14.2%, p=0.002), primarily due to deaths from a broad class of injuries [excluding motor vehicle accidents (MVAs)] (16.2%, p=0.008), as well as fatalities due to MVAs (12.7%, p=0.038). In provinces/territories with an MLDA of 19 years, significant jumps appeared immediately after the MLDA among males in all-cause mortality (7.2%, p=0.003), including injuries from external causes (10.4%, p CONCLUSIONS: Canadian drinking-age legislation has a powerful impact on youth mortality. Given that removal of MLDA restrictions was associated with sharp upturns in fatalities among young men, the MLDA likely reduces population-level mortality among male youth under the constraints of drinking-age legislation. Alcohol-control policies should target the transition across the MLDA as a pronounced period of mortality risk, especially among males.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Affiliation : Northern Medical Program, University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC), Prince George, British Columbia, Canada Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.138 (May 2014) . - 137-145[article]Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context / A. CALAFAT ; F. GARCIA ; M. JUAN ; E. BECONA ; J. R. FERNANDEZ-HERMIDA in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.138 (May 2014)
Titre : Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. CALAFAT ; F. GARCIA ; M. JUAN ; E. BECONA ; J. R. FERNANDEZ-HERMIDA Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 185-192 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
EUROPE ; SUEDE ; ROYAUME-UNI ; ESPAGNE ; PORTUGAL ; SLOVENIE ; REPUBLIQUE TCHEQUE
ADOLESCENT ; FACTEUR DE PROTECTION ; PARENTALITE ; PARENT ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; PERFORMANCE ; IMAGE DE SOI
Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Résumé : BACKGROUND: This study examines whether authoritative parenting style (characterized by warmth and strictness) is more protective against adolescent substances use than authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), indulgent (warmth but not strictness) and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles. Emergent research in diverse cultural contexts (mainly Southern European and Latin American countries) questions the fact that authoritative would always be the optimum parenting style.
DESIGN: Multi-factorial MANOVAs.
PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 7718 adolescents, 3774 males (48.9%), 11-19 year-olds (M=14.63 year-olds, SD=1.9 years) from Sweden, United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic.
MEASUREMENTS: Parenting style dimensions (warmth and strictness) and adolescent substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs); additionally another three adolescent outcomes were also measured (self-esteem, school performance and personal disturbances) all of them related in the literature with substance use.
FINDINGS: Both indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting in all the countries studied. Overall, our results support the idea that in Europe the indulgent parenting style performs as well as the authoritative one since adolescents' scores in the youth outcomes were equal (on substance use and personal disturbances) or even better (on self esteem and school performance) than for authoritative parenting style.
CONCLUSIONS: Parenting styles relate to substance use and other outcomes in the same way in different countries explored. The so-called indulgent parenting style appears to be as good as the authoritative in protecting against substance abuse.
L'autorité parentale ne serait pas le seul positionnement éducatif susceptible de prémunir les usages de substances psychoactives chez l'enfant. C'est du moins ce que tend à suggérer cette étude multifactorielle réalisée auprès d'un échantillon de 7718 adolescents âgés de 11 à 19 ans représentant 6 pays d'Europe. Une relation de type empathique et indulgente y serait favorable également voire plus favorable en termes de performances scolaires et de développement chez l'enfant de ressources psychologiques comme l'estime de soi. [Actualité des addictions, 25/06/2014]
Domaine : Plusieurs produits / Several products Affiliation : European Institute of Studies on Prevention (Irefrea), Palma de Mallorca, Spain Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.138 (May 2014) . - 185-192[article]Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life / S. G. ARREOLA ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.138 (May 2014)
Titre : Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. G. ARREOLA ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 244-250 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
INJECTION ; INITIATION ; USAGER ; AGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : BACKGROUND: Studies report that among people who inject drugs (PWID), approximately 1 in 7 initiated injection during their thirties or later (referred to hereafter as "late initiates"). However, little is known about individuals who are late initiates. This study aims to describe characteristics of late initiates to drug injection and to examine how they differ from people who initiated drug injection prior to the age of 30 ("typical initiates").
METHODS: We recruited 696 active PWID in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California between 2011 and 2013, using targeted sampling and street outreach methods. Participants completed personal interviews that covered items on demographics, drug use history and practices, injection initiation episode, HIV injection- and sex-related risk, health care utilization among others. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine factors associated being a late initiate.
RESULTS: In our sample, 19% of participants who were 30 years or older were classified as late initiates. In multivariate analysis controlling for city, late initiates had higher odds of being female and African American, having been in treatment prior to initiation, initiating illicit drug use at an older age, and being assisted into injection by someone of the same age or younger. Late initiates had lower odds of frequent recent injection, and having a bipolar disorder diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Late initiates comprise a significant proportion of active PWIDs. More study on the health consequences of late initiation are needed as are interventions to prevent transition to drug injection among at-risk populations.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : Global Forum on MSM and HIV, Oakland, CA, USA Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.138 (May 2014) . - 244-250[article]