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Addiction . Vol.107, n°11Mention de date : November 2012
Paru le : 01/11/2012
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Controlling new drugs under marketing regulations [For debate] / B. HUGHES ; A. R. WINSTOCK in Addiction, Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012)
Titre : Controlling new drugs under marketing regulations [For debate] Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : B. HUGHES, Auteur ; A. R. WINSTOCK, Auteur ; K. KRAJEWSKI, Auteur du commentaire ; J. SHERIDAN, Auteur du commentaire ; B. ATMORE, Auteur du commentaire ; B. RUSSELL, Auteur du commentaire ; P. REUTER, Auteur du commentaire ; T. P. FREEMAN, Auteur du commentaire ; H. V. CURRAN, Auteur du commentaire Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 1894-1899 Note générale : Commentaries:
• Against excess. Krajewski K., p. 1900-1901.
• New Zealand to establish fit for purpose regulation for new psychoactive substances. Sheridan J., Atmore B., Russell B., p. 1901-1902.
• The dangerous charms of the unknown. Reuter P., p. 1902-1903.
• Supply always comes on the heels of demand: what effects do control strategies have on drug users themselves? Freeman T.P., Curran H.V., p. 1903-1905.
Letter to the editor: No quick fix for legal highs. Parsons J., p. 2053-2054.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
PHENOMENE EMERGENT ; DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; CONTROLE DES STUPEFIANTS ; MARKETING ; LEGISLATION ; POLITIQUE ; VENTE ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; REGLEMENTATION
EUROPE ; UNION EUROPEENNE ; NOUVELLE ZELANDE
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : Aims: The rapid emergence of myriad substances openly marketed as ‘legal highs’ is straining traditional drug control systems which require time and basic scientific data on harms to react, presenting governments with the dilemma of no response or a disproportionate response. Some countries have side-stepped this using novel policy and legislative approaches. Should other countries consider them?
Methods: We review the different laws invoked to stop the open sale of new psychoactive substances, focusing on the European Union (EU).
Results: Some countries have designed new catch-all control systems, or faster systems to classify substances as drugs. Others have enforced consumer safety or medicines legislation to stop the open sale of these products. The latter originate from harmonization of the internal market of the EU. Rigorous, objective evaluation is required, but first results suggest that these have been effective, while avoiding criminalization of users.
Conclusions: Every EU country should have existing laws for protecting public health that can be applied swiftly yet proportionately to new drugs appearing on the open market with minimum political involvement. It seems the key is the speed, not the weight, of response. Given support for their enforcement mechanisms, these systems might be as effective and more efficient than the old ones.
Domaine : Autres substances / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 36 Affiliation : European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03620.x Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012) . - 1894-1899[article]Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings / P. VICKERMAN ; N. MARTIN ; K. TURNER ; M. HICKMAN in Addiction, Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012)
Titre : Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : P. VICKERMAN ; N. MARTIN ; K. TURNER ; M. HICKMAN Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 1984-1995 Note générale : Commentary: Reducing hepatitis C virus among injection drug users through harm reduction programs. Smith-Spangler C.M., Asch S.M., p. 1996-1997. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
PROGRAMME ; ECHANGE DE SERINGUES ; TRAITEMENT DE MAINTENANCE ; SUBSTITUTION ; HEPATITE ; PREVALENCE ; REDUCTION DES RISQUES ; MODELE STATISTIQUE
Discipline : MAL Maladies infectieuses / Infectious diseases Résumé : Aims: To investigate the impact of scaling-up opiate substitution therapy (OST) and high coverage needle and syringe programmes (100%NSP - obtaining more sterile syringes than you inject) on HCV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs).
Design: Hepatitis C virus HCV transmission modelling using UK estimates for effect of OST and 100%NSP on individual risk of HCV infection.
Setting: Range of chronic HCV prevalent (20/40/60%) settings with no OST/100%NSP, and UK setting with 50% coverage of both OST and 100%NSP.
Participants: Injecting drug users.
Measurements: Decrease in HCV prevalence after 5-20 years due to scale-up of OST and 100%NSP to 20/40/60% coverage in no OST/100%NSP settings, or from 50% to 60/70/80% coverage in the UK setting.
Findings: For 40% chronic HCV prevalence, scaling-up OST and 100%NSP from 0% to 20% coverage reduces HCV prevalence by 13% after 10 years. This increases to a 24/33% relative reduction at 40/60% coverage. Marginally less impact occurs in higher prevalence settings over 10 years, but this becomes more pronounced over time. In the United Kingdom, without current coverage levels of OST and 100%NSP the chronic HCV prevalence could be 65% instead of 40%. However, increasing OST and 100%NSP coverage further is unlikely to reduce chronic prevalence to less than 30% over 10 years unless coverage becomes >=80%.
Conclusions: Scaling-up opiate substitution therapy and high coverage needle and syringe programmes can reduce hepatitis C prevalence among injecting drug users, but reductions can be modest and require long-term sustained intervention coverage. In high coverage settings, other interventions are needed to further decrease hepatitis C prevalence. In low coverage settings, sustained scale-up of both interventions is needed.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 76 Affiliation : London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03932.x Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012) . - 1984-1995[article]England's legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children / M. SIMS ; L. BAULD ; A. GILMORE in Addiction, Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012)
Titre : England's legislation on smoking in indoor public places and work-places: impact on the most exposed children Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. SIMS ; L. BAULD ; A. GILMORE Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 2009-2016 Note générale : Commentary): A timely response to the impact of smoke-free public places on the most exposed children. Brown A., p. 2017-2018. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ANGLETERRE ; ROYAUME-UNI
TABAC ; LEGISLATION ; INTERDICTION DE FUMER ; ENFANT ; COTININE ; TABAGISME PASSIF
Discipline : LOI Loi et son application / Law enforcement Résumé : Aims: To examine whether English legislation to make virtually all indoor public places and work-places smoke-free on 1 July 2007 displaced smoking into the home and hence increased the proportion of children exposed to levels of second-hand smoke known to be detrimental to health.
Design: Repeated cross-sectional study with data from 10 annual surveys undertaken from 1996 to 2008.
Participants: Nationally representative samples of non-smoking children aged 4-15 years old living in private households.
Measurements: Salivary cotinine, parental smoking status, whether smoking is allowed within the house, socio-demographic variables.
Findings: The proportion of children exposed to damaging levels of second-hand smoke (defined as those with cotinine levels >1.7 ng/ml) has fallen over time, from 23.5% in 1996 to 12.6% in 2008. The legislation was not associated with further changes in the proportion of children above this threshold - the odds of having cotinine >1.7 ng/ml did not change after adjustment for the pre-legislative trend and confounders (odds ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 1.4). Non-significant associations were also found when examining children by parental or household smoking status.
Conclusions: Legislation to prohibit smoking in indoor public places and work-places does not increase the proportion of children exposed to damaging levels of second-hand smoke. Even in a country with a strong tobacco control climate, a significant proportion of children remain highly exposed to second-hand smoke and future policies need to include interventions to reduce exposure among these children.
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 22 Affiliation : Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03924.x Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012) . - 2009-2016[article]The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis / T. LANGLEY ; A. McNEILL ; S. LEWIS ; L. SZATKOWSKI ; C. QUINN in Addiction, Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012)
Titre : The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : T. LANGLEY ; A. McNEILL ; S. LEWIS ; L. SZATKOWSKI ; C. QUINN Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 2043-2050 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; MEDIA ; ABSTINENCE ; CAMPAGNE DE PREVENTION ; TELEPHONE ; TELEVISION
Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : Aims: To evaluate the effect of tobacco control media campaigns and pharmaceutical company-funded advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation activity.
Design: Multiple time series analysis using structural vector autoregression, January 2002-May 2010.
Setting: England and Wales.
Data sources: Tobacco control campaign data from the Central Office of Information; commercial NRT campaign data; data on calls to the National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking helpline from the Department of Health; point-of-sale data on over-the-counter (OTC) sales of NRT; and prescribing data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a database of UK primary care records.
Measurements: Monthly calls to the NHS stop smoking helpline and monthly rates of OTC sales and prescribing of NRT.
Findings: A 1% increase in tobacco control television ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, was associated with a statistically significant 0.085% increase in calls in the same month (P = 0.007), and no statistically significant effect in subsequent months. Tobacco control TVRs were not associated with OTC NRT sales or prescribed NRT. NRT advertising TVRs had a significant effect on NRT sales which became non-significant in the seasonally adjusted model, and no significant effect on prescribing or calls.
Conclusions: Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at triggering quitting behaviour than pharmaceutical company NRT campaigns. Any effect of such campaigns on quitting behaviour seems to be restricted to the month of the campaign, suggesting that such campaigns need to be sustained over time.
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 36 Affiliation : UK Centre for Tobacco Control Studies, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03958.x Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012) . - 2043-2050[article]