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Auteur G. LEWIS
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Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort / R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS in Pediatrics, Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011)
Titre : Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : e948-e955 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE LONGITUDINALE ; COHORTE ; ADOLESCENT ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; CATEGORIE SOCIO-PROFESSIONNELLE ; PARENT ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Objective: To examine the association between use of alcohol and cigarettes among adolescents and their early socioeconomic background. Methods: Members of a longitudinal birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], United Kingdom) were invited to attend a personal interview. A total of 5837 children aged 13 years were asked about previous consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Information on parental socioeconomic position, collected from questionnaires from the mother, included both social class and education of the expectant mother and her partner and average household disposable income in early preschool childhood. The impact of missing data was assessed by multiple imputation. Results: Consuming a drink of alcohol in the previous 6 months was linearly associated with higher income levels even when adjusting for other socioeconomic indicators. In contrast, both the risk of binge drinking and recent drinking was lower for children whose mothers had a higher educational level. Smoking tobacco was associated with lower socioeconomic position irrespective of the indicator used. Analyses after imputation of missing data confirmed these associations. Conclusions: Alcohol drinking was more common in young people from higher-income households but less common with higher levels of maternal education. A consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient with tobacco smoking was apparent. These results may reflect how different aspects of socioeconomic position can influence health behavior in opposing directions. Higher income may increase the availability of alcohol in the family, whereas mothers with higher educational attainment might encourage more healthy behaviors in their children, including reduced alcohol use. Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol ; Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 42 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni Cote : A04102 Permalink :
in Pediatrics > Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011) . - e948-e955[article]Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review / T. H. M. MOORE
Titre : Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : T. H. M. MOORE ; S. ZAMMIT ; A. LINGFORD-HUGHES ; T. R. E. BARNES ; P. B. JONES ; M. BURKE ; G. LEWIS Année de publication : 2007 Importance : 319-328 Note générale : Lancet (The), 2007, 370, (9584), 319-328
Edito: "Rehashing the evidence on psychosis and cannabis", p. 292.
Comment: "Cannabis use and risk of psychosis in later life", M. Nordentoft, C. Hjorthøj, p. 293-294.
Correspondence : The Lancet 2007;370(9598):1539-40 (http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673607616535/fulltext).
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
CANNABIS ; TROUBLE BIPOLAIRE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; PSYCHOSE ; PSYCHOPATHOLOGIE ; COMORBIDITE ; INCIDENCE
Discipline : PSY Psychopathologie / Psychopathology Résumé : BACKGROUND: Whether cannabis can cause psychotic or affective symptoms that persist beyond transient intoxication is unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to cannabis use and occurrence of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ISI Proceedings, ZETOC, BIOSIS, LILACS, and MEDCARIB from their inception to September, 2006, searched reference lists of studies selected for inclusion, and contacted experts. Studies were included if longitudinal and population based. 35 studies from 4804 references were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were done independently and in duplicate. FINDINGS: There was an increased risk of any psychotic outcome in individuals who had ever used cannabis (pooled adjusted odds ratio=1.41, 95% CI 1.20-1.65). Findings were consistent with a dose-response effect, with greater risk in people who used cannabis most frequently (2.09, 1.54-2.84). Results of analyses restricted to studies of more clinically relevant psychotic disorders were similar. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety outcomes were examined separately. Findings for these outcomes were less consistent, and fewer attempts were made to address non-causal explanations, than for psychosis. A substantial confounding effect was present for both psychotic and affective outcomes. INTERPRETATION: The evidence is consistent with the view that cannabis increases risk of psychotic outcomes independently of confounding and transient intoxication effects, although evidence for affective outcomes is less strong. The uncertainty about whether cannabis causes psychosis is unlikely to be resolved by further longitudinal studies such as those reviewed here. However, we conclude that there is now sufficient evidence to warn young people that using cannabis could increase their risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life. (Author' s abstract) Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Sous-type de document : Méta-analyse / Meta-analysis ; Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 69 Affiliation : Dept of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff Univ., Cardiff CF14 4XN.
Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom.
Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A03315 Permalink : Drug use and initiation in prison: results from a national prison survey in England and Wales / A. BOYS
Titre : Drug use and initiation in prison: results from a national prison survey in England and Wales Titre traduit : (Consommation de drogues et initiation en prison : résultats d'une enquête nationale dans les prisons de l'Angleterre et du Pays de Galles) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. BOYS ; M. FARRELL ; P. BEBBINGTON ; BRUGHA T. ; COID J. ; R. JENKINS ; G. LEWIS ; J. MARSDEN ; MELTZER H. ; N. SINGLETON ; C. TAYLOR Année de publication : 2002 Importance : 1551-1560 Présentation : tabl. Note générale : Addiction, 2002, 97, (12), 1551-1560 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
HEROINE ; COCAINE ; PRISON ; INITIATION ; POPULATION A RISQUE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE DESCRIPTIVE
ANGLETERRE ; PAYS DE GALLES ; ROYAUME-UNI
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : FRANÇAIS :
En Angleterre et au Pays de Galle, 3142 prisonniers ont été soumis à une enquête par questionnaire concernant leurs caractéristiques démographiques, leur trajectoire sociale, leurs problèmes psychiatriques et leurs consommations de drogues. Plus de 60 % des usagers réguliers d'héroïne et de cannabis en avaient consommé en prison, contre mois de 40 % pour les usagers de cocaïne. Plus d'un quart des usagers d'héroïne ont déclaré avoir été initiés en prison. Aucun facteur de risque n'était spécifiquement associé à cette consommation, hormis l'expérience même de la vie carcérale.
Aims. To investigate heroin and cocaine use in a sample of British prisoners, and to explore the characteristics of inmates who use these drugs for the first time while in prison. Design, participants. A cross-sectional survey of all prisons in England and Wales conducted as part of a major national study of psychiatric morbidity. A total of 3142 prisoners (88.2% of those selected) completed a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Measurements. Interview measures of personal demographics, social history, psychiatric morbidity and drug use. Personality disorders were diagnosed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and neurotic symptoms were assessed using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). Findings. More than 60% of the heroin users and cannabis users reported that they had used these drugs in prison compared with less than a quarter of the life-time cocaine users. More than a quarter of the heroin users reported that they had initiated use of this drug in prison. The extent of an individual's experience of prison was related more consistently to heroin and/or cocaine use in and out of prison than other personal background, social history or psychiatric variables assessed. Conclusions. The findings indicate that prisons are a high-risk environment for heroin and other drug initiation and use. Although related to drug use, psychiatric variables were not generally associated with initiation in prison, which was dominated by prison exposure. There is a need to explore ways of reducing heroin initiation in prison as part of a broader risk-prevention strategy. (Author' s abstract)
Note de contenu : tabl. Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : Natl Addiction Centre, Inst. Psychiatry, Kings Coll. London, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 4AF, M.Farrelliop.kcl.ac.uk
Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom.
Numéro Toxibase : 206545 Centre Emetteur : 02 Coordonnateur Permalink : Effects of cannabis use on outcomes of psychotic disorders: systematic review / S. ZAMMIT in British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.193, n°5 (November 2008)
Titre : Effects of cannabis use on outcomes of psychotic disorders: systematic review Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. ZAMMIT ; T. H. M. MOORE ; A. LINGFORD-HUGHES ; T. R. BARNES ; P. B. JONES ; M. BURKE ; G. LEWIS Année de publication : 2008 Article en page(s) : 357-363 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
CANNABIS ; TROUBLE BIPOLAIRE ; PSYCHOPATHOLOGIE ; COMORBIDITE ; RECHUTE ; SYMPTOME ; PSYCHOSE
Discipline : PSY Psychopathologie / Psychopathology Résumé : BACKGROUND: It is unclear if research findings support clinical opinion that cannabis use leads to worse outcomes in people with psychosis, or whether this impression is confounded by other factors.
AIMS: To systematically review the evidence pertaining to whether cannabis affects outcome of psychotic disorders.
METHOD: We searched 10 relevant databases (to November 2006), reference lists of included studies and contacted experts. We included 13 longitudinal studies from 15,303 references. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate.
RESULTS: Cannabis use was consistently associated with increased relapse and non-adherence. Associations with other outcome measures were more disparate. Few studies adjusted for baseline illness severity, and most made no adjustment for alcohol, or other potentially important confounders. Adjusting for even a few confounders often resulted in substantial attenuation of results.
CONCLUSIONS: Confidence that most associations reported were specifically due to cannabis is low. Despite clinical opinion, it remains important to establish whether cannabis is harmful, what outcomes are particularly susceptible, and how such effects are mediated. Studies to examine this further are eminently feasible. (Author' s abstract)
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 34 Affiliation : Academic Unit of Psychiatry, University of Bristol, UK Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A03892 Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.046375 Permalink :
in British Journal of Psychiatry > Vol.193, n°5 (November 2008) . - 357-363[article]Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity - results of a national household survey / M. FARREL
Titre : Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity - results of a national household survey Titre traduit : (Dépendance à la nicotine, à l'alcool et aux autres drogues et comorbidité psychiatrique - résultats d'une enquête nationale auprès des ménages) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. FARREL ; HOWES S. ; P. BEBBINGTON ; BRUGHA T. ; R. JENKINS ; G. LEWIS ; C. TAYLOR ; MELTZER H. ; J. MARSDEN Année de publication : 2003 Importance : 50-56 Présentation : tabl. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 0954-0261 Note générale : International Review of Psychiatry, 2003, 15, 50-56 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
COMORBIDITE ; PSYCHOPATHOLOGIE ; DEPENDANCE ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE DESCRIPTIVE
There is a well-recognized relationship between substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders. This relationship has been well documented in a range of population-based studies. This study aims to report on consumption patterns of and dependence on nicotine, alcohol, and non prescribed drugs and to report on the levels of psychiatric morbidity in these groups. A national household study of psychiatric morbidity was conducted in England and Wales. Psychiatric assessment was based on the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Measures of nicotine, alcohol and drug use and dependence were obtained. This paper compares the levels of psychiatric morbidity in the non-dependent and the nicotine-, alcohol- and drug-dependent cases. Twelve per cent of the non-dependent population were assessed as having any psychiatric disorder compared with 22% of the nicotine-dependent, 30% of the alcohol-dependent, and 45% of the drug-dependent population. There is a clear relationship between dependence on nicotine, alcohol, and drugs and other psychiatric morbidity. (Author's abstract.)
Note de contenu : tabl. Domaine : Plusieurs produits / Several products Refs biblio. : 24 Affiliation : Natl Addiction Ctr, Inst. Psychiat., Maudsley Hosp., 4 Windsor Walk, London, SE5 8AF
Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom.
Numéro Toxibase : 505762 Centre Emetteur : 05 Marmottan Permalink : Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity: results of a national household survey / M. FARRELL in British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.179, n°5 (November 2001)PermalinkPatterns of alcohol use in early adolescence predict problem use at age 16 / J. HERON ; J. MACLEOD ; M. R. MUNAFO ; R. MELOTTI ; G. LEWIS ; K. TILLING ; M. HICKMAN in Alcohol and Alcoholism, Vol.47, n°2 (March-April 2012)PermalinkSelf reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study / S. ZAMMITPermalinkSubstance misuse and psychiatric comorbidity : an overview of the OPCS national psychiatric mobidity survey / M. FARRELLPermalinkSubstance misuse and psychiatric comorbidity: an overview of the OPCS National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey / M. FARRELPermalink