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Auteur C. MUIRHEAD
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Does industry-driven alcohol marketing influence adolescent drinking behaviour? A systematic review / S. SCOTT ; C. MUIRHEAD ; J. SHUCKSMITH ; R. TYRRELL ; E. KANER in Alcohol and Alcoholism, Vol.52, n°1 (January 2017)
Titre : Does industry-driven alcohol marketing influence adolescent drinking behaviour? A systematic review Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. SCOTT ; C. MUIRHEAD ; J. SHUCKSMITH ; R. TYRRELL ; E. KANER Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 84-94 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ADOLESCENT ; ALCOOL ; INDUSTRIE DE L'ALCOOL ; MARKETING ; INFLUENCE ; INITIATION ; TYPE D'USAGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aim: To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17.
Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers.
Results: Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18.
Conclusion: Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Affiliation : Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agw085 Permalink :
in Alcohol and Alcoholism > Vol.52, n°1 (January 2017) . - 84-94[article]Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations [Review] / E. F. S. KANER ; F. R. BEYER ; C. MUIRHEAD ; F. CAMPBELL ; E. D. PIENAAR ; N. BERTHOLET ; J. B. DAEPPEN ; J. B. SAUNDERS ; B. BURNAND in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, n°2 (2018)
Titre : Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations [Review] Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : E. F. S. KANER ; F. R. BEYER ; C. MUIRHEAD ; F. CAMPBELL ; E. D. PIENAAR ; N. BERTHOLET ; J. B. DAEPPEN ; J. B. SAUNDERS ; B. BURNAND Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : CD004148 ; 252 p. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
INTERVENTION BREVE ; ALCOOL ; EFFICACITE ; REPERAGE PRECOCE ; MEDECIN GENERALISTE ; URGENCE ; SOINS DE PREMIER RECOURS ; USAGE PROBLEMATIQUE ; INTERVENTION
Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : What is the aim of this review?
We aimed to find out whether brief interventions with doctors and nurses in general practices or emergency care can reduce heavy drinking. We assessed the findings from 69 trials that involved a total of 33,642 participants; of these 34 studies (15,197 participants) provided data for the main analysis.
Brief interventions in primary care settings aim to reduce heavy drinking compared to people who received usual care or brief written information. Longer interventions probably make little or no difference to heavy drinking compared to brief intervention.
What was studied in the review?
One way to reduce heavy drinking may be for doctors and nurses to provide brief advice or brief counselling to targeted people who consult general practitioners or other primary health care providers. People seeking primary healthcare are routinely asked about their drinking behaviour because alcohol use can affect many health conditions.
Brief interventions typically include feedback on alcohol use and health-related harms, identification of high risk situations for heavy drinking, simple advice about how to cut down drinking, strategies that can increase motivation to change drinking behaviour, and the development of a personal plan to reduce drinking. Brief interventions are designed to be delivered in regular consultations, which are often 5 to 15 minutes with doctors and around 20 to 30 minutes with nurses. Although short in duration, brief interventions can be delivered in one to five sessions. We did not include digital interventions in this review.
Search date: The evidence is current to September 2017.
Study funding: Funding sources were reported by 60 (87%) studies. Of these, 58 studies were funded by government institutes, research bodies or charitable foundations. One study was partly funded by a pharmaceutical company and a brewers association, another by a company developing diagnostic testing equipment. Nine studies did not report study funding sources.
What are the main results of the review?
We included 69 controlled trials conducted in many countries. Most studies were conducted in general practice and emergency care. Study participants received brief intervention or usual care or written information about alcohol (control group).
The amount of alcohol people drank each week was reported by 34 trials (15,197 participants) at one-year follow-up and showed that people who received the brief intervention drank less than control group participants (moderate-quality evidence). The reduction was around a pint of beer (475 mL) or a third of a bottle of wine (250 mL) less each week.
Longer counselling probably provided little additional benefit compared to brief intervention or no intervention.
One trial reported that the intervention adversely affected binge drinking for women, and two reported that no adverse effects resulted from receiving brief interventions. Most studies did not mention adverse effects.
Quality of the evidence:
Findings may have been affected because participants and practitioners were often aware that brief interventions focused on alcohol. Furthermore, some participants could not be contacted at one-year follow-up to report drinking levels. Overall, evidence was assessed as mostly moderate-quality. This means the reported effect size and direction is likely to be close to the true effect of these interventions.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Affiliation : Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Permalink :
in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews > n°2 (2018) . - CD004148 ; 252 p.[article]Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations [Review] / E. F. KANER ; F. R. BEYER ; C. GARNETT ; D. CRANE ; J. BROWN ; C. MUIRHEAD ; J. REDMORE ; A. O'DONNELL ; J. J. NEWHAM ; F. DE VOCHT ; M. HICKMAN ; H. BROWN ; G. MANIATOPOULOS ; S. MICHIE in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, n°9 (2017)
Titre : Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations [Review] Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : E. F. KANER ; F. R. BEYER ; C. GARNETT ; D. CRANE ; J. BROWN ; C. MUIRHEAD ; J. REDMORE ; A. O'DONNELL ; J. J. NEWHAM ; F. DE VOCHT ; M. HICKMAN ; H. BROWN ; G. MANIATOPOULOS ; S. MICHIE Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : CD011479 ; 189 p. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; INTERVENTION ; REDUCTION DE CONSOMMATION ; USAGE PROBLEMATIQUE ; ACTION COMMUNAUTAIRE ; ABUS ; EFFICACITE ; METHODE ; INFORMATIQUE ; TELEPHONE ; JEUNE ; ADULTE
Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : Review question: We aimed to find out if personalised advice to reduce heavy drinking provided using a computer or mobile device is better than nothing or printed information. We also compared advice provided using a computer or mobile device to advice given in a face-to-face conversation. The main outcome was how much alcohol people drank.
Background: Heavy drinking causes over 60 diseases, as well as many accidents, injuries and early deaths each year. Brief advice or counselling, delivered by doctors or nurses, can help people reduce their drinking by around 4 to 5 units a week. In the UK, this is around two pints (1.13 L) of beer or half a bottle of wine (375 mL) each week. However, people may be embarrassed by talking about alcohol.
Search date: Current to March 2017.
Study characteristics: The studies included people in workplaces, colleges or health clinics and internet users. Everyone typed information about their drinking into a computer or mobile device - which then gave half the people advice about how much they drank and the effect this has on health. This group also received suggestions about how to cut down on drinking. The other group could sometimes read general health information. Between one month and one year later, everyone was asked to confirm how much they were drinking. Drinking levels in both groups were compared to each other at these time points.
Study funding sources: Many (56%) studies were funded by government or research foundation funds. Some (11%) were funded by personal awards such as PhD fellowships. The rest did not report sources of funding.
Key results: We included 57 studies comparing the drinking of people getting advice about alcohol from computers or mobile devices with those who did not after one to 12 months. Of these, 41 studies (42 comparisons, 19,241 participants) focused on the actual amounts that people reported drinking each week. Most people reported drinking less if they received advice about alcohol from a computer or mobile device compared to people who did not get this advice.
Evidence shows that the amount of alcohol people cut down may be about 1.5 pints (800 mL) of beer or a third of a bottle of wine (250 mL) each week. Other measures supported the effectiveness of digital alcohol interventions, although the size of the effect tended to be smaller than for overall alcohol consumption. Positive differences in measures of drinking were seen at 1, 6 and 12 months after the advice.
There was not enough information to help us decide if advice was better from computers, telephones or the internet to reduce risky drinking. We do not know which pieces of advice were the most important to help people reduce problem drinking. However, advice from trusted people such as doctors seemed helpful, as did recommendations that people think about specific ways they could overcome problems that might prevent them from drinking less and suggestions about things to do instead of drinking. We included five studies which compared the drinking of people who got advice from computers or mobile devices with advice from face-to-face conversations with doctors or nurses; there may be little or no difference between these to reduce heavy drinking.
No studies reported whether any harm came from the interventions.
Personalised advice using computers or mobile devices may help people reduce heavy drinking better than doing nothing or providing only general health information. Personalised advice through computers or mobile devices may make little or no difference to reduce drinking compared to face-to-face conversation.
Quality of the evidence: Evidence was moderate-to-low quality.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Affiliation : Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Permalink :
in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews > n°9 (2017) . - CD011479 ; 189 p.[article]