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Auteur D. CHU
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Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life / S. G. ARREOLA ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.138 (May 2014)
Titre : Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. G. ARREOLA ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 244-250 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
INJECTION ; INITIATION ; USAGER ; AGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : BACKGROUND: Studies report that among people who inject drugs (PWID), approximately 1 in 7 initiated injection during their thirties or later (referred to hereafter as "late initiates"). However, little is known about individuals who are late initiates. This study aims to describe characteristics of late initiates to drug injection and to examine how they differ from people who initiated drug injection prior to the age of 30 ("typical initiates").
METHODS: We recruited 696 active PWID in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California between 2011 and 2013, using targeted sampling and street outreach methods. Participants completed personal interviews that covered items on demographics, drug use history and practices, injection initiation episode, HIV injection- and sex-related risk, health care utilization among others. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine factors associated being a late initiate.
RESULTS: In our sample, 19% of participants who were 30 years or older were classified as late initiates. In multivariate analysis controlling for city, late initiates had higher odds of being female and African American, having been in treatment prior to initiation, initiating illicit drug use at an older age, and being assisted into injection by someone of the same age or younger. Late initiates had lower odds of frequent recent injection, and having a bipolar disorder diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Late initiates comprise a significant proportion of active PWIDs. More study on the health consequences of late initiation are needed as are interventions to prevent transition to drug injection among at-risk populations.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : Global Forum on MSM and HIV, Oakland, CA, USA Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.138 (May 2014) . - 244-250[article]Factors associated with initiating someone into illicit drug injection / R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; B. QUINN ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.144 (November 2014)
Titre : Factors associated with initiating someone into illicit drug injection Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; L. WENGER ; D. CHU ; B. QUINN ; J. THING ; A. H. KRAL Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 186-192 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
INJECTION ; INITIATION ; USAGER ; ETUDE TRANSVERSALE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aims: Most people who inject drugs (PWID) were first initiated into injection by a current PWID. Few studies have examined PWID who assist others into drug injection. Our goal is to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months.
Methods: We recruited a cross-sectional sample of PWID (N = 605) in California from 2011 to 2013. We examined bivariate and multivariate risk factors for initiating someone into injection with a focus on behaviors that might encourage injection initiation such as injecting in front of non-PWID, describing how to inject to non-PWID, and willingness to initiate someone into drug injection.
Results: Having initiated someone into injection was reported by 34% of PWID overall and 7% in the last 12 months. Forty-four PWID had assisted 431 people into injection in the past year. Factors independently associated with initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months were self-reported likelihood of initiating someone in the future (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 7.09; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 3.40, 14.79), having injected another PWID in past month (AOR = 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94, 8.47), having described how to inject to non-injectors (2.61; 95% CI = 1.19, 5.71), and non-injection powder cocaine use in past month (AOR = 4.97; 95% CI = 2.08, 11.84) while controlling for study site.
Conclusion: Active PWID are important in facilitating the process of drug injection uptake. Interventions to reduce initiation should include efforts to change behaviors and intentions among PWID that are associated with injection uptake among others.
This paper is the largest observational epidemiology study of PWID that initiate others into drug injection.
There have been several editorials, reviews, and commentaries calling for more studies on injection initiation patterns and risk.
This paper, with its robust findings, makes a very important contribution to the little studied behavior of initiating others into injection drug use.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute for Prevention Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.144 (November 2014) . - 186-192[article]Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles: The role of sterile syringe source / B. QUINN ; D. CHU ; L. WENGER ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; A. H. KRAL in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.25, n°5 (September 2014)
Titre : Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles: The role of sterile syringe source Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : B. QUINN ; D. CHU ; L. WENGER ; R. N. BLUTHENTHAL ; A. H. KRAL Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 905-910 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ECHANGE DE SERINGUES ; REDUCTION DES RISQUES ; PHARMACIE ; ETUDE TRANSVERSALE ; USAGER ; PROGRAMME ; GEOGRAPHIE
Discipline : PRE Prévention / Prevention Résumé : Background: Few recent studies have investigated the prevalence of improperly discarded syringes in community settings by people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined whether syringe source was associated with the act of improper syringe disposal and amount of syringes improperly disposed of among PWID in Los Angeles, California.
Methods: A cross-sectional sample of PWID (N = 412) was recruited and administered a structured questionnaire between July 2011 and April 2013. Descriptive analyses investigated syringe access and disposal practices among participants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified adjusted associations between syringe source (syringe exchange program [SEP] or pharmacy) and improper syringe disposal.
Results: Most participants were male (69%), homeless (62%) and low-income earners (64%). The majority (87%) of the sample received syringes from a SEP in the past six months, with 26% having received syringes from pharmacies and 36% from unauthorised sources (e.g., friend, drug dealer). Of more than 30,000 used syringes reportedly disposed of by participants during the past 30 days, 17% were disposed of improperly. Two percent of participants disposed of any used syringes at pharmacies, compared to 68% who used SEPs for syringe disposal. Having received sterile syringes from a SEP was independently associated with lower odds of improper syringe disposal; however, purchasing sterile syringes from pharmacies was associated with significantly higher odds of improper syringe disposal.
Conclusion: In a city with both SEPs and pharmacies as syringe source and disposal options for PWID, these findings suggest that while pharmacies are selling syringes, they are not as readily involved in safe syringe disposal. Given limits on SEP availability and the large geographic size of Los Angeles County, augmenting current SEP services and providing other community disposal sites, including pharmacy disposal, processes could reduce improper syringe disposal among PWID in Los Angeles.
We examined 'improper' syringe disposal among PWID in Los Angeles.
Most syringes (83%) were disposed of 'properly' or safely (e.g., via SEPs).
Sourcing syringes from SEPs decreased the odds of improper disposal.
Sourcing syringes from pharmacies increased the odds of improper disposal.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : Centre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in International Journal of Drug Policy > Vol.25, n°5 (September 2014) . - 905-910[article]