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Auteur J. MACLEOD
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Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort / R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS in Pediatrics, Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011)
Titre : Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : e948-e955 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE LONGITUDINALE ; COHORTE ; ADOLESCENT ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; CATEGORIE SOCIO-PROFESSIONNELLE ; PARENT ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Objective: To examine the association between use of alcohol and cigarettes among adolescents and their early socioeconomic background. Methods: Members of a longitudinal birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], United Kingdom) were invited to attend a personal interview. A total of 5837 children aged 13 years were asked about previous consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Information on parental socioeconomic position, collected from questionnaires from the mother, included both social class and education of the expectant mother and her partner and average household disposable income in early preschool childhood. The impact of missing data was assessed by multiple imputation. Results: Consuming a drink of alcohol in the previous 6 months was linearly associated with higher income levels even when adjusting for other socioeconomic indicators. In contrast, both the risk of binge drinking and recent drinking was lower for children whose mothers had a higher educational level. Smoking tobacco was associated with lower socioeconomic position irrespective of the indicator used. Analyses after imputation of missing data confirmed these associations. Conclusions: Alcohol drinking was more common in young people from higher-income households but less common with higher levels of maternal education. A consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient with tobacco smoking was apparent. These results may reflect how different aspects of socioeconomic position can influence health behavior in opposing directions. Higher income may increase the availability of alcohol in the family, whereas mothers with higher educational attainment might encourage more healthy behaviors in their children, including reduced alcohol use. Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol ; Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 42 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni Cote : A04102 Permalink :
in Pediatrics > Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011) . - e948-e955[article]Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study / A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
Titre : Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 658-668 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ANGLETERRE ; ROYAUME-UNI
ADOLESCENT ; CANNABIS ; NIVEAU DE CONNAISSANCE ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES ; ABANDON SCOLAIRE ; COHORTE ; DOSE-REPONSE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aims: To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes.
Design: Birth cohort study.
Participants: The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables.
Measurements: The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder.
Findings: In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following adjustment, tobacco appeared to have a consistently stronger effect than cannabis.
Conclusions: Both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. Given the non-specific patterns of association seen and the attenuation of estimates on adjustment, it is possible that these effects arise through non-causal mechanisms, although a causal explanation cannot be discounted.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12827 Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 658-668[article]Changes in opiate treatment during attendance at a community drug service. Findings from a clinical audit / J. MACLEOD ; A. WHITTAKER ; J. R. ROBERTSON
Titre : Changes in opiate treatment during attendance at a community drug service. Findings from a clinical audit Titre traduit : (Evolution du traitement de la toxicomanie aux opiacés dans un service de traitement ambulatoire; bilan clinique) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. MACLEOD ; A. WHITTAKER ; J. R. ROBERTSON Année de publication : 1998 Importance : 19-25 ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 0959-5236 Note générale : Drug and Alcohol Review, 1998, 17, (1), 19-25 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
OPIACES ; METHADONE ; BENZODIAZEPINES ; CODEINE ; PRESCRIPTION MEDICALE ; TRAITEMENT DE MAINTENANCE ; COMPARAISON ; EVOLUTION
Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : FRANÇAIS :
Les prescriptions de méthadone et de dihydrocodéïne ont été évaluées entre 1990 et 1995, dans un groupe de 200 toxicomanes, 170 d'entre eux faisant l'objet d'une prescription d'opiacés ou de benzodiazépines. On n'observe pas de différence significative entre les groupes recevant de la méthadone ou de la dihydrocodéïne ; la rétention en traitement, le taux de mortalité et les changements de comportement sont semblables. Au cours de la période étudiée, la tendance est à augmenter les prescriptions de méthadone, malgré les résistances culturelles à ce produit. La dihydrocodéïne reste cependant un produit de substitution de choix.
To evaluate use of methadone and dihydrocodeine prescription in a group of opiate-dependent patients attending a community practice drugs project, data were recorded at enrolment in 1990 and at the beginning of 1995. 200 individuals were included, of whom 85% received a prescription for an opiate and/or benzodiazepine. There were no major differences between the groups receiving methadone and dihydrocodeine, and retention in treatment, death and behavior change was similar. Trends during the study period included an increase in methadone prescribing and towards longer-acting benzodiazepines.(From authors' abstract)
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 22 Affiliation : Dept Gen. Pract., Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston B15 2TT
Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom.
Numéro Toxibase : 802631 Centre Emetteur : 08 CAS Strasbourg Permalink : Early exposure to marijuana and risk of later drug use / SCHIER J. G.
Titre : Early exposure to marijuana and risk of later drug use Titre traduit : (Exposition précoce à la marijuana et risque d'une usage de drogues ultérieur.) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : SCHIER J. G. ; L. S. NELSON ; R. S. HOFFMAN ; P. CUMMINGS ; J. MACLEOD ; M. HICKMAN ; G. D. SMITH ; K. J. S. ANAND ; M. T. LYNSKEY ; D. J. STATHAM ; N. G. MARTIN ; HEATH A. C. ; K. K. BUCHOLZ ; P. A. F. MADDEN ; E. C. NELSON ; W. S. SLUTSKE Année de publication : 2003 Importance : 329-332 Note générale : Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003, 290, (3), 329-332 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
CANNABIS ; INITIATION ; THEORIE DE L'ESCALADE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ; METHODE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : FRANÇAIS :
Lettres à l'éditeur à propos de l'étude de "Escalation of drug use in early-onset cannabis users vs co-twins controls" publié dans JAMA, 2003, 289, 427-433, remettant en cause les résultats de cette étude.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 33 Affiliation : NYC Poison Control Center, New York, NY
Etats-Unis. United States.
Numéro Toxibase : 207166 Centre Emetteur : 02 Coordonnateur Permalink : How ideology shapes the evidence and the policy: what do we know about cannabis use and what should we do? / J. MACLEOD ; M. HICKMAN in Addiction, Vol.105, n°8 (August 2010)
Titre : How ideology shapes the evidence and the policy: what do we know about cannabis use and what should we do? Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. MACLEOD ; M. HICKMAN Année de publication : 2010 Article en page(s) : 1326-1330 Note générale : Commentaries & author's reply:
SOLOWIJ N. "Harms to body and soul--an ideological balancing act for preventing and reducing cannabis use", p.1331-1332.
HALL W., DEGENHARDT L. "What are the policy implications of the evidence on cannabis use and psychosis?", p.1332-1333.
WITTCHEN H.U. "Estimating harmful effects of cannabis and use for policy makers shifting from one mistake to the next?", p.1334-1335.
MACCOUN R.J. "The implicit rules of evidence-based policy analysis, updated", p.1335-1336.
FERGUSSON D.M. "Is there a causal linkage between cannabis use and increased risks of psychotic symptoms?", p.1336-1337.
MACLEOD J., HICKMAN M. "Response to commentaries: moving towards an evidence-based policy around cannabis use", p.1337-1339.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
CANNABIS ; TROUBLE BIPOLAIRE ; POLITIQUE ; SANTE PUBLIQUE ; SCHIZOPHRENIE ; PREVENTION ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; PSYCHOSE
Mots-clés : evidence-based Discipline : SAN Santé publique / Public health Résumé : In the United Kingdom, as in many places, cannabis use is considered substantially within a criminal justice rather than a public health paradigm with prevention policy embodied in the Misuse of Drugs Act. In 2002 the maximum custodial sentence tariff for cannabis possession under the Act was reduced from 5 to 2 years. Vigorous and vociferous public debate followed this decision, centred principally on the question of whether cannabis use caused schizophrenia. It was suggested that new and compelling evidence supporting this hypothesis had emerged since the re-classification decision was made, meaning that the decision should be reconsidered. The re-classification decision was reversed in 2008. We consider whether the strength of evidence on the psychological harms of cannabis has changed substantially and discuss the factors that may have influenced recent public discourse and policy decisions. We also consider evidence for other harms of cannabis use and public health implications of preventing cannabis use. We conclude that the strongest evidence of a possible causal relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia emerged more than 20 years ago and that the strength of more recent evidence may have been overstated--for a number of possible reasons. We also conclude that cannabis use is almost certainly harmful, mainly because of its intimate relation to tobacco use. The most rational policy on cannabis from a public health perspective would seem to be one able to achieve the benefit of reduced use in the population while minimizing social and other costs of the policy itself. Prohibition, whatever the sentence tariff associated with it, seems unlikely to fulfil these criteria. [Author's abstract] Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 41 Affiliation : Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Whatley Road, Bristol, United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.105, n°8 (August 2010) . - 1326-1330[article]How strong is the evidence that illicit drug use by young people is an important cause of psychological or social harm ? Methodological and policy implications of a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies / J. MACLEODPermalinkPatterns of alcohol use in early adolescence predict problem use at age 16 / J. HERON ; J. MACLEOD ; M. R. MUNAFO ; R. MELOTTI ; G. LEWIS ; K. TILLING ; M. HICKMAN in Alcohol and Alcoholism, Vol.47, n°2 (March-April 2012)PermalinkPatterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: findings from a UK birth cohort / M. TAYLOR ; S. M. COLLIN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. MACLEOD ; M. HICKMAN ; J. HERON in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol.71, n°8 (August 2017)PermalinkPsychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies / J. MACLEODPermalinkRisk of death during and after opiate substitution treatment in primary care: prospective observational study in UK General Practice Research Database / R. CORNISH ; J. MACLEOD ; J. STRANG ; P. VICKERMAN ; M. HICKMAN in British Medical Journal, Vol.341, n°7779 (30 October 2010)PermalinkSubstance misuse and psychiatric illness: prospective observational study using the general practice research database / M. FRISHER in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol.59 n°10 (2005)Permalink