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Auteur A. PEACOCK
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'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks / A. PEACOCK ; A. PENNAY ; N. DROSTE ; R. BRUNO ; D. I. LUBMAN in Addiction, Vol.109, n°10 (October 2014)
in Addiction > Vol.109, n°10 (October 2014) . - 1612-1633
Titre : 'High' risk? A systematic review of the acute outcomes of mixing alcohol with energy drinks Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. PEACOCK ; A. PENNAY ; N. DROSTE ; R. BRUNO ; D. I. LUBMAN Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 1612-1633 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
BOISSON ENERGISANTE ; ALCOOL ; CAFEINE ; INTOXICATION ; EFFET SECONDAIRE ; PHYSIOLOGIE ; PSYCHOLOGIE ; CONDUITE A RISQUE
Mots-clés : taurine Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Résumé : Aims: Alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a relatively new consumption trend generating increasing concern regarding potential adverse effects. Despite the political and health imperative, there has been no systematic and independent synthesis of the literature to determine whether or not AmED offers additional harms relative to alcohol. The aim of this study was to review the evidence about whether co-consumption of energy drinks and alcohol, relative to alcohol alone, alters: (i) physiological, psychological, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes; (ii) hazardous drinking practices; and (iii) risk-taking behaviour.
Methods: Pubmed, PsycInfo and Embase databases were searched until May 2013 for papers outlining descriptive, observational analytical and human experimental studies which compared target outcomes for AmED versus alcohol consumers (between-subjects), or AmED versus alcohol consumption (within-subjects). Odds ratios were calculated for target outcomes following screening, data extraction and quality assessment.
Results: Data were extracted from 19 papers. Analyses typically revealed increased odds of self-reported stimulation-based outcomes and decreased odds of sedation-based physiological and psychological outcomes relative to when alcohol was consumed alone, as indicated by rigorous cross-sectional descriptive research. These findings typically have not been reflected in experimental research, due possibly to the low doses administered relative to typical self-reported 'real-life' intake. AmED consumers generally report more hazardous alcohol consumption patterns and greater engagement in risk-taking behaviour than alcohol consumers. While most studies had equivocal findings, two studies showed lower odds of risk-taking behaviour for AmED relative to alcohol drinking sessions but limitations with respect to the outcome measures used restrict conclusions with regard to the behavioural outcomes of AmED use.
Conclusions: Mixing alcohol with energy drinks may exert a dual effect, increasing stimulation-based effects and reducing sedation-based outcomes; the clinical severity and dose threshold has not been established. At this stage it is unclear whether these changes in the nature of intoxication translate into greater alcohol intake and risk-taking behaviour.
From surveys it seems that combining 'energy drinks' (containing caffeine) with alcohol increases levels of stimulation and reduces sedation but experimental studies involving relatively low doses have so far not borne this out.
Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 51 Affiliation : School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Cote : Abonnement Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=74847[article]New psychoactive substance use among regular psychostimulant users in Australia, 2010-2015 / R. SUTHERLAND ; A. PEACOCK ; E. WHITTAKER ; A. ROXBURGH ; S. LENTON ; A. MATTHEWS ; K. BUTLER ; M. NELSON ; L. BURNS ; R. BRUNO in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.161 (April 2016)
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.161 (April 2016) . - 110-118
Titre : New psychoactive substance use among regular psychostimulant users in Australia, 2010-2015 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. SUTHERLAND ; A. PEACOCK ; E. WHITTAKER ; A. ROXBURGH ; S. LENTON ; A. MATTHEWS ; K. BUTLER ; M. NELSON ; L. BURNS ; R. BRUNO Année de publication : 2016 Article en page(s) : 110-118 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; EVOLUTION ; PHENOMENE EMERGENT ; POLYCONSOMMATION ; CANNABINOIDES ; STIMULANTS ; LSD ; CATHINONE ; PLANTE ; USAGER
Mots-clés : tryptamines phénéthylamines Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Autres substances addictives / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Objective: To examine the rates and patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) use amongst regular psychostimulant users (RPU) in Australia.
Method: Data were obtained from the 2010-2015 Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS), which comprised a total cross-sectional sample of 4122 RPU.
Results: Recent use of 'any' NPS increased from 33% in 2010 to 40% in 2015, although trends of use differed significantly across NPS classes. The correlates associated with NPS use also varied across NPS classes: frequent (i.e. weekly or more) ecstasy users were more likely to report recent phenethylamine use; LSD users were more likely to report recent phenethylamine and tryptamine use; and daily cannabis users were more likely to report recent synthetic cannabinoid use than RPU who had not used NPS. 'Poly' NPS consumers were found to be a particularly high risk group and were significantly more likely to be younger, male, report daily cannabis use, report weekly or more ecstasy use, report recent LSD use, have higher levels of poly drug use, have overdosed on any drug in the past year, and to have engaged in past month criminal activity.
Conclusion: NPS use has been established as a significant and ongoing practice amongst our sample of RPU. It appears that RPU seek out NPS with similar properties to the illicit drugs that they are already consuming, with poly NPS consumers found to be a particularly high risk group.
Recent use of 'any' new psychoactive substance (NPS) increased from 33% in 2010 to 40% in 2015.
However, rates of use varied considerably across NPS classes.
Participants appeared to seek out NPS that were similar to the illicit drugs they were already using.
'Poly' NPS users were found to be a particularly high risk group of users.
Affiliation : National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=77279[article]A systematic review of injecting-related injury and disease among people who inject drugs / S. LARNEY ; A. PEACOCK ; B. M. MATHERS ; M. HICKMAN ; L. DEGENHARDT in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.171 (February 2017)
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.171 (February 2017) . - 39-49
Titre : A systematic review of injecting-related injury and disease among people who inject drugs Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. LARNEY ; A. PEACOCK ; B. M. MATHERS ; M. HICKMAN ; L. DEGENHARDT Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 39-49 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
INJECTION ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; USAGER ; VOIE INTRAVEINEUSE ; ABCES ; ENDOCARDITE ; INFECTION ; PEAU
Discipline : PAT Pathologie organique / Organique disease Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Background: Non-viral injecting-related injuries and diseases (IRID), such as abscesses and vascular damage, can result in significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. There has been no systematic assessment of the prevalence of non-viral IRID among people who inject drugs; this review aimed to address this gap, as well as identify risk factors for experience of specific IRID.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases to identify studies on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, IRID directly linked to injecting in samples of people who inject illicit drugs.
Results: We included 33 studies: 29 reported IRID prevalence in people who inject drugs, and 17 provided data on IRID risk factors. Skin and soft tissue infections at injecting sites were the most commonly reported IRID, with wide variation in lifetime prevalence (6-69%). Female sex, more frequent injecting, and intramuscular and subcutaneous injecting appear to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections at injecting sites. Cleaning injecting sites was protective against skin infections. Other IRID included infective endocarditis (lifetime prevalence ranging from 0.5-12%); sepsis (2-10%); bone and joint infections (0.5-2%); and thrombosis and emboli (3-27%).
Conclusions: There were significant gaps in the data, including a dearth of research on prevalence of IRID in low- and middle-income countries, and potential risk and protective factors for IRID. A consistent approach to measurement, including standardised definitions of IRID, is required for future research.
Skin and soft tissue infections are common among people who inject drugs.
There are few data on other injecting-related injuries and diseases.
Cleaning injecting sites and avoiding intramuscular and subcutaneous injecting may reduce injecting-related injury and disease (IRID) risk.
Better epidemiological data are needed to inform prevention and care interventions.
Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Affiliation : National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=78615[article]