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Auteur M. HICKMAN
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Acceptability of low dead space syringes and implications for their introduction: A qualitative study in the West of England / J. M. KESTEN ; R. AYRES ; J. NEALE ; J. CLARK ; P. VICKERMAN ; M. HICKMAN ; S. REDWOOD in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.39 (January 2017)
in International Journal of Drug Policy > Vol.39 (January 2017) . - 99-108
Titre : Acceptability of low dead space syringes and implications for their introduction: A qualitative study in the West of England Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. M. KESTEN ; R. AYRES ; J. NEALE ; J. CLARK ; P. VICKERMAN ; M. HICKMAN ; S. REDWOOD Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 99-108 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ANGLETERRE ; ROYAUME-UNI
ETUDE QUALITATIVE ; SERINGUE ; MATERIEL D'INJECTION ; REDUCTION DES RISQUES ; USAGER
Mots-clés : acceptabilité Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Background: It is recommended that needle and syringe programmes (NSP) distribute low dead space syringes (LDSS) to reduce blood-borne virus transmission. We explored the acceptability of detachable LDSS among people who inject drugs (PWID) and staff who work to support them.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 23 PWID (15 men and 8 women) and 13 NSP staff members (6 men and 7 women) in Bath and Bristol, England. Recruited PWID reflected varying demographic characteristics, drug use and injecting preferences. Interviews explored experiences of different types of injecting equipment, facilitators and barriers of changing this equipment and attitudes towards detachable LDSS. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework Method.
Results: Decisions about injecting practices were underpinned by several factors, including early experiences and peer initiation; awareness and availability of alternatives; and the ability to inject successfully. Rinsing and re-using syringes represented a quandary where rinsing could encourage re-use, but not rinsing could result in the re-use of unclean equipment. Most PWID were reluctant to change equipment particularly in the absence of any problems injecting. Prioritising getting a 'hit' over the prevention of potential problems was an important barrier to change. Overall detachable LDSS are likely to be acceptable. Lower risk of transferring infections and reduced drug wastage were valued benefits of detachable LDSS. There was a preference for a gradual introduction of detachable LDSS in which PWID are given an opportunity to try the new equipment alongside their usual equipment.
Conclusion: Detachable LDSS are likely to be acceptable and should therefore be offered to those using detachable high dead space syringes and/or fixed 1 ml LDSS syringes to inject into deeper femoral veins. An intervention is needed to support their introduction with 'training', 'education', 'persuasion' and eventual 'restriction' components.
Affiliation : NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West (NIHR CLAHRC West) at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, UK Cote : Abonnement Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=78505[article]Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort / R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS in Pediatrics, Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011)
in Pediatrics > Vol.127, n°4 (April 2011) . - e948-e955
Titre : Adolescent alcohol and tobacco use and early socioeconomic position: The ALSPAC birth cohort Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. MELOTTI ; J. HERON ; M. HICKMAN ; J. MACLEOD ; R. ARAYA ; G. LEWIS Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : e948-e955 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE LONGITUDINALE ; COHORTE ; ADOLESCENT ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; CATEGORIE SOCIO-PROFESSIONNELLE ; PARENT ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol ; Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : Objective: To examine the association between use of alcohol and cigarettes among adolescents and their early socioeconomic background. Methods: Members of a longitudinal birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], United Kingdom) were invited to attend a personal interview. A total of 5837 children aged 13 years were asked about previous consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Information on parental socioeconomic position, collected from questionnaires from the mother, included both social class and education of the expectant mother and her partner and average household disposable income in early preschool childhood. The impact of missing data was assessed by multiple imputation. Results: Consuming a drink of alcohol in the previous 6 months was linearly associated with higher income levels even when adjusting for other socioeconomic indicators. In contrast, both the risk of binge drinking and recent drinking was lower for children whose mothers had a higher educational level. Smoking tobacco was associated with lower socioeconomic position irrespective of the indicator used. Analyses after imputation of missing data confirmed these associations. Conclusions: Alcohol drinking was more common in young people from higher-income households but less common with higher levels of maternal education. A consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient with tobacco smoking was apparent. These results may reflect how different aspects of socioeconomic position can influence health behavior in opposing directions. Higher income may increase the availability of alcohol in the family, whereas mothers with higher educational attainment might encourage more healthy behaviors in their children, including reduced alcohol use. Refs biblio. : 42 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni Cote : A04102 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=66724[article]Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study / A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD in Addiction, Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015)
in Addiction > Vol.110, n°4 (April 2015) . - 658-668
Titre : Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. I. STIBY ; M. HICKMAN ; M. R. MUNAFO ; J. HERON ; V. L. YIP ; J. MACLEOD Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 658-668 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ANGLETERRE ; ROYAUME-UNI
ADOLESCENT ; CANNABIS ; NIVEAU DE CONNAISSANCE ; NIVEAU D'ETUDES ; ABANDON SCOLAIRE ; COHORTE ; DOSE-REPONSE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : Aims: To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes.
Design: Birth cohort study.
Participants: The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables.
Measurements: The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder.
Findings: In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following adjustment, tobacco appeared to have a consistently stronger effect than cannabis.
Conclusions: Both cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence are associated strongly with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. Given the non-specific patterns of association seen and the attenuation of estimates on adjustment, it is possible that these effects arise through non-causal mechanisms, although a causal explanation cannot be discounted.
Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12827 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=75594[article]Antiretroviral treatment for injecting drug users in developing and transitional countries 1 year before the end of the 'Treating 3 million by 2005. Making it happen. The WHO strategy' ('3by5') / C. ACEIJAS
Titre : Antiretroviral treatment for injecting drug users in developing and transitional countries 1 year before the end of the 'Treating 3 million by 2005. Making it happen. The WHO strategy' ('3by5') Titre traduit : (Le traitement antirétroviral chez les usagers de drogues par injection dans les pays en cours ou en voie de développement un an avant le terme du programme de l'OMS "traiter 3 million de personnes d'ici 2005. Tout faire pour que cela arrive" Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : C. ACEIJAS ; E. OPPENHEIMER ; G. V. STIMSON ; R. E. ASHCRAFT ; S. MATIC ; M. HICKMAN Année de publication : 2006 Importance : 1246-1253 Présentation : tabl. Note générale : Addiction, 2006, 101, (9), 1246-1253 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
EUROPE ; AMERIQUE DU SUD ; ASIE ; AFRIQUE
VIH ; ANTIVIRAUX ; INJECTION ; TRAITEMENT ; PREVALENCE ; PROGRAMME ; EFFICACITE
Discipline : MAL Maladies infectieuses / Infectious diseases Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Objective: To describe and estimate the availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to injecting drug users (IDUs) in developing and transitional countries. Methods: Literature review of grey and published literature and key informants' communications on the estimated number of current/former injecting drug users (IDUs) receiving ART and the proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attributed to injecting drug use (IDU), the number of people in ART and in need of ART, the number of people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) and the main source of ART. Results: Data on former/current IDUs on ART were available from 50 countries (in 19 countries: nil IDUs in treatment) suggesting that ~34 000 IDUs were receiving ART by the end of 2004, of whom 30 000 were in Brazil. In these 50 countries IDUs represent ~15% of the people in ART. In Eastern European and Central Asia IDU are associated with > 80% of HIV cases but only ~ 2000 (14%) of the people in ART. In South and South-East Asia there were ~1700 former/current IDUs receiving ART ~1.8% of the people in ART), whereas the proportion of HIV cases associated to IDU is > 20% in five countries (and regionally ranges from 4% to 75%). Discussion: There is evidence that the coverage of ART among current/former IDUs is proportionally substantially less than other exposure categories. Ongoing monitoring of ART by exposure and population subgroups is critical to ensuring that scale-up is equitable, and that the distribution of ART is, at the very least, transparent. (Author' s abstract) Refs biblio. : 34 Affiliation : Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour (CRDHB), Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WCIE 7HT, Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom. Numéro Toxibase : 208860 Centre Emetteur : 02 Coordonnateur Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=14952Association between availability of heroin and methadone and fatal poisoning in England and Wales 1993-2004 / O. MORGAN
Titre : Association between availability of heroin and methadone and fatal poisoning in England and Wales 1993-2004 Titre traduit : (Association entre disponibilité d'héroïne et de méthadone et intoxiccation fatale en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles -1993-2004) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : O. MORGAN ; C. GRIFFITHS ; M. HICKMAN Année de publication : 2007 Importance : 1579-1585 Présentation : fig. ; tabl. Note générale : International Journal of Epidemiology, 2007, 35, (2), 1579-1585 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
HEROINE ; METHADONE ; INTOXICATION ; SURDOSE ; ENQUETE ; MORTALITE
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé :
BACKGROUND: The UK heroin market is the biggest in Europe and approximately 70% of heroin deaths are due to fatal poisoning. Methadone treatment for heroin addiction in the UK, the 'British system', is unique as it is largely provided by General Practitioners. METHODS: The Office for National Statistics provided data on deaths, the Home Office provided law enforcement data on drug seizures and the Department of Health data on prescriptions. For methadone treatment we calculated the death rate per 1000 patient years. We used Spearman's rank correlation to assess the association between illicit drug seizures for heroin and methadone and deaths. RESULTS: Between 1993 and 2004 there were 7072 deaths involving heroin/morphine (86% males) and 3298 deaths involving methadone (83% male). From 1993-1997, directly age-standardized mortality rates for males were similar for both drugs, increasing from approximately 5 to 15 per million. Mortality rates for heroin continued to increase until 2000, subsequently decreasing from 30 to 20 per million by 2003, and rising again to 24 per million in 2004. In contrast, mortality rates for methadone decreased between 1997 and 2004 to just above 1993 levels. Among females the mortality rate for both drugs was lower than for males throughout the study period, remaining relatively stable. Methadone deaths per 1000 patient years remained similar between 1993 and 1997, after which they fell by three quarters. For both heroin/morphine and methadone, deaths were strongly associated with seizures (Spearmans' coefficient for males: heroin, P = 0.95, P < 0.001 and methadone, P = 0.83, P = 0.0013). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the 'British System' can deliver substantial expansion of treatment without increased mortality risk. The fall in heroin/morphine deaths since 2000 may also be an indication of success of increasing methadone treatment. Data on mortality risk is needed to determine whether increased methadone treatment has reduced drug-related deaths. (Author' s abstract)
Note de contenu : fig. ; tabl. Refs biblio. : 35 Affiliation : Department of Primary Care and Social Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. Omorgan@bigfoot.com Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom. Numéro Toxibase : 1302152 Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A03348 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=53382Can needle and syringe programmes and opiate substitution therapy achieve substantial reductions in hepatitis C virus prevalence? Model projections for different epidemic settings / P. VICKERMAN ; N. MARTIN ; K. TURNER ; M. HICKMAN in Addiction, Vol.107, n°11 (November 2012)PermalinkCapturing crack cocaine use: estimating the prevalence of crack cocaine use in London using capture-recapture with covariates / V. D. HOPEPermalinkCombination interventions to prevent HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: modeling the impact of antiviral treatment, needle and syringe programs, and opiate substitution therapy / N. K. MARTIN ; M. HICKMAN ; S. J. HUTCHINSON ; D. J. GOLDBERG ; P. VICKERMAN in Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol.57, Suppl.2 (August 2013)PermalinkA comparison of different methods for estimating the prevalence of problematic drug misuse in Great Britain / M. FRISCHERPermalinkContinuing the epidemiological function of the Addicts Index - evidence from matching the home office addicts index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System / M. HICKMANPermalinkCould low dead-space syringes really reduce HIV transmission to low levels? [Commentary] / P. VICKERMAN ; N. K. MARTIN ; M. HICKMAN in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.24, n°1 (January 2013)PermalinkDefining populations and injecting parameters among people who inject drugs: Implications for the assessment of hepatitis C treatment programs [Commentary] / S. LARNEY ; J. GREBELY ; M. HICKMAN ; D. DE ANGELIS ; G. J. DORE ; L. DEGENHARDT in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.26, n°10 (October 2015)PermalinkDiffusion of drug misuse in Scotland: findings from the 1993 and 1996 Scottish crime surveys / M. FRISHERPermalinkDrug-related mortality and its impact on adult mortality in eight European countries / A. M. BARGAGLI in European Journal of Public Health, Vol.16 n°2 (2006)PermalinkEarly exposure to marijuana and risk of later drug use / SCHIER J. G.Permalink