|Titre :||Chronic health effects associated with electronic cigarette use: A systematic review (2022)|
|Auteurs :||R. A. WASFI ; F. BANG ; M. DE GROH ; A. CHAMPAGNE ; A. HAN ; J. J. LANG ; S. R. MCFAULL ; A. MELVIN ; A. L. PIPE ; S. SAXENA ; W. THOMPSON ; E. WARNER ; S. A. PRINCE|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Frontiers in Public Health (Vol.10, 2022)|
|Article en page(s) :||art. 959622|
|Discipline :||PAT (Pathologie organique / Organic pathology)|
Thésaurus mots-clésE-CIGARETTE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; COMPARAISON ; FUMEUR ; NON FUMEUR ; PATHOLOGIE ORGANIQUE ; APPAREIL CARDIOVASCULAIRE ; APPAREIL RESPIRATOIRE ; SYSTEME IMMUNITAIRE ; SANTE
INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, e-cigarette use has been on the rise but with growing health concerns. The objective of this systematic review was to update findings for chronic health outcomes associated with e-cigarette use from the 2018 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) report.
METHODS: Three bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies comparing the chronic health effects of e-cigarette users (ECU) to non-smokers (NS), smokers, and/or dual users indexed between 31 August 2017 and 29 January 2021. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second one. Outcomes were synthesized in a narrative manner using counts and based on statistical significance and direction of the association stratified by study design and exposure type. Risk of bias and certainty of evidence was assessed. The protocol was prospectively registered on Open Science Framework https://osf.io/u9btp.
RESULTS: A total of 180 articles were eligible. This review focused on 93 studies for the 11 most frequently reported outcomes and from which 59 reported on daily e-cigarette use. The certainty of evidence for all outcomes was very low because of study design (84% cross-sectional) and exposure type (27% reported on exclusive ECU, i.e., never smoked traditional cigarettes). Overall, the summary of results for nearly all outcomes, including inflammation, immune response, periodontal and peri-implant clinical parameters, lung function, respiratory symptoms, and cardiovascular disease, suggested either non-significant or mixed results when daily ECU was compared to NS. This was also observed when comparing exclusive ECU to NS. The only notable exception was related to oral health where most (11/14) studies reported significantly higher inflammation among daily ECU vs. NS. Compared to the smokers, the exclusive-ECUs had no statistically significant differences in inflammation orperiodontal clinical parameters but had mixed findings for peri-implant clinical parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: This review provides an update to the 2018 NASEM report on chronic health effects of e-cigarette use. While the number of studies has grown, the certainty of evidence remains very low largely because of cross-sectional designs and lack of reporting on exclusive e-cigarette exposure. There remains a need for higher quality intervention and prospective studies to assess causality, with a focus on exclusive e-cigarette use.
|Domaine :||Tabac / Tobacco|
|Sous-type de document :||Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Affiliation :||Applied Research Division, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research, Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada|