|Titre :||Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapies for alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review and network meta-analysis (2022)|
|Auteurs :||A. BAHJI ; P. BACH ; M. DANILEWITZ ; D. CROCKFORD ; N. EL-GUEBALY ; D. J. DEVOE ; R. SAITZ|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Addiction (Vol.117, n°10, October 2022)|
|Article en page(s) :||2591-2601|
|Discipline :||TRA (Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEALCOOL ; SEVRAGE ; PHARMACOTHERAPIE ; COMPARAISON ; EFFICACITE ; TRAITEMENT ; MEDICAMENTS
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There have been few head-to-head clinical trials of pharmacotherapies for alcohol withdrawal (AW). We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the comparative performance of pharmacotherapies for AW.
METHODS: Six databases were searched for randomized clinical trials through November 2021. Trials were included after a blinded review by two independent reviewers. Outcomes included incident seizures, delirium tremens, AW severity scores, adverse events, dropouts, dropouts from adverse events, length of hospital stay, use of additional medications, total benzodiazepine requirements, and death. Effect sizes were pooled using frequentist random-effects network meta-analysis models to generate summary ORs and Cohen's d standardized mean differences (SMDs).
RESULTS: Across the 149 trials, there were 10 692 participants (76% male, median 43.5 years old). AW severity spanned mild (n = 32), moderate (n = 51), and severe (n = 66). Fixed-schedule chlormethiazole (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.65), fixed-schedule diazepam (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.59), fixed-schedule lorazepam (OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.45), fixed-schedule chlordiazepoxide (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.53), and divalproex (OR = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.86) were superior to placebo at reducing incident AW seizures. However, only fixed-schedule diazepam (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.76) reduced incident delirium tremens. Oxcarbazepine (d = -3.69; 95% CI, -6.21 to -1.17), carbamazepine (d = -2.76; 95% CI, -4.13 to -1.40), fixed-schedule oxazepam (d = -2.55; 95% CI, -4.26 to -0.83), and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (d = -1.80; 95% CI, -3.35 to -0.26) improved endpoint Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised scores over placebo. Promazine and carbamazepine were the only agents significantly associated with greater dropouts because of adverse events. The quality of evidence was downgraded because of the substantial risk of bias, heterogeneity, inconsistency, and imprecision.
CONCLUSIONS: Although some pharmacotherapeutic modalities, particularly benzodiazepines, appear to be safe and efficacious for reducing some measures of alcohol withdrawal, methodological issues and a high risk of bias prevent a consistent estimate of their comparative performance.
|Domaine :||Alcool / Alcohol|
|Sous-type de document :||Méta-analyse / Meta-analysis ; Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Refs biblio. :||91|
|Affiliation :||Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada|