|Titre :||Characteristics and risk of incarceration among "hard-to-reach" people who use drugs: A five-year prospective cohort study combining self-reports and registry data (2021)|
|Auteurs :||L. GJERSING ; A. L. BRETTEVILLE-JENSEN|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||International Journal of Drug Policy (Vol.95, September 2021)|
|Article en page(s) :||art. 103288|
|Discipline :||EPI (Epidémiologie / Epidemiology)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEINCARCERATION ; USAGER ; POPULATION CACHEE ; ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; SANCTION PENALE ; RECIDIVE ; COHORTE ; INJECTION ; FACTEUR PREDICTIF
Background: Incarcerations are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality among people who use drugs (PWUD). In a sample of 884 PWUD, we examine and estimate the risk of incarcerations (i.e., number, duration, and most serious offense).
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, PWUD were recruited from street- and low-threshold services in seven Norwegian cities in 2013 (Sept-Nov), and followed through the Correctional Service Registry until 20.12.2018. The risk of incarceration during follow-up was examined with multivariable logistic (no incarceration vs. at least one) and multinomial regression models ("no incarcerations", vs. "1", ">=2"), while accounting for gender, age, homelessness/shelter use, opioid substitution treatment, illegal income sources, injecting behaviours, previous incarcerations, and recruitment city.
Results: During follow-up, there were in total 662 incarceration episodes, and 44.7% of the participants were incarcerated at least once. Overall, 37.5% of those incarcerated had at least one episode due to a drug offense. The average incarceration duration was 65.2 days with 3.5% of the episodes lasting >=one year. Gender (male), homelessness/shelter use, illegal income sources, injecting stimulants, and previous incarcerations increased the odds of incarceration, while older age decreased the odds. Gender (male), younger age, self-reported theft or theft and dealing, injecting stimulants or heroin and stimulants and previous incarcerations increased the risk of multiple incarcerations.
Conclusion: In a five-year prospective study of PWUD, incarcerations were common, and short-term sentences and recidivism were the norm. This is of concern as incarcerations add to an already elevated morbidity and mortality risk in this population.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Affiliation :||Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Alcohol, Tobacco and Drugs, Oslo, Norway|