|Titre :||Sources of drug acquisition among females and males in the European Web Survey on Drugs (2020)|
|Auteurs :||M. VUOLO ; J. MATIAS|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||International Journal of Drug Policy (Vol.81, July 2020)|
|Article en page(s) :||art. 102777|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marché de la drogue / Drug market)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEENQUETE ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; SEXE ; REVENDEUR ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; ACHAT ; CANNABIS ; COCAINE ; MDMA-ECSTASY
Background: Social networks determine the availability of drugs, which in turn affects use patterns. Yet, there is some limited evidence that as frequency of drug use increases, people who use drugs increasingly utilize drug dealers. Further, females more often report receiving drugs for free. Studies on these two phenomena are limited by the substances they examine and the countries in which they have been conducted, and they have not been considered together. We examine whether gender differences in sources is moderated by increased frequency of use across four different substances in a web survey of sixteen European countries.
Methods: The European Web Survey on Drugs was collected from 2016-2018 among the national partners of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Individuals who use drugs in sixteen European countries completed an online survey. For herbal cannabis, cannabis resin, cocaine, and MDMA, we examine drug acquisition sources by gender and frequency of use. Sources include through dealers and sharing or free, as well as growing and online markets for cannabis. We model each source with logistic regression with chained multiple imputation and a country fixed-effect and clustered standard errors.
Results: Across all substances, females who use drugs at low frequencies had significantly lower probabilities than males in using dealers; however, females were equally likely to use dealers when use is frequent. The probability of acquiring drugs for free was higher for females except among those who use most frequently, where the difference became non-significant except for herbal cannabis.
Conclusions: Females and males use dealers to acquire illicit drugs at similar rates when use is more frequent. Except for highest frequency use, females are typically more likely than males to acquire drugs for free. Examinations of supply should consider these gendered differences in acquisition.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
Department of Sociology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal