|Titre :||Smoking in bars in eight European countries in 2010 and 2016: an observational comparative study (2019)|
|Auteurs :||A. E. KUNST ; K. N. J. VAN BEEK ; O. LIGNAC ; M. A. G. KUIPERS|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||European Journal of Public Health (Vol.29, n°1, February 2019)|
|Article en page(s) :||159-163|
|Discipline :||LOI (Loi et son application / Law enforcement)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASETABAC ; COMPARAISON ; DEBIT DE BOISSONS ; LEGISLATION ; INTERDICTION DE FUMER ; PREVALENCE ; EVOLUTION
Background: Most European countries established laws against smoking in public places. We aimed to describe the prevalence of smoking in bars in 2010 and 2016 in eight European countries and to characterise those bars in which smoking still occurred in 2016.
Methods: Smoking in bars was studied in 16 cities in 8 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany and the Netherlands). In 2010, 96 bars were visited. In 2016, 51 bars were revisited and 45 new bars were visited. Smoking indoors and characteristics of bars, terrace and customers were observed using a standard observation template. Associations between bar characteristics and smoking were analyzed using logistic regression.
Results: Overall prevalence of in-bar smoking was 39.6% in 2010 and 34.4% in 2016. Prevalence in bars covered by smoke-free legislation decreased from 24.2 to 13.0% between 2010 and 2016 whereas prevalence in bars where smoking was legally allowed increased from 73.3 to 88.9%. In-bar smoking almost exclusively occurred in countries with partial smoke-free legislation compared with more comprehensive legislation. Smoking was more prevalent in bars for locals, with a counter for drinks, slot-machines, no outside seating and no food service. Size of the bar, comfort of the terrace and the presence of cigarette vending machines were not associated with in-bar smoking.
Conclusions: Whereas comprehensive smoke-free legislation resulted in high compliance, smoking increased in bars in countries with partial or no smoke-free legislation. This study confirms that comprehensive smoke-free legislation is needed to protect customers and personnel against second-hand-smoke exposure in all bars.
|Domaine :||Tabac / Tobacco|
|Refs biblio. :||22|
|Affiliation :||Department of Public Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands|