|Titre :||Association of cannabis with cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2018)|
|Auteurs :||J. SCOTT ; S. T. SLOMIAK ; J. D. JONES ; A. G. ROSEN ; T. M. MOORE ; R. C. GUR|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||JAMA Psychiatry (Vol.75, n°6, June 2018)|
|Article en page(s) :||585-595|
|Discipline :||EPI (Epidémiologie / Epidemiology)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEADOLESCENT ; ADULTE JEUNE ; CANNABIS ; COGNITION ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; USAGE REGULIER ; ABUS ; ABSTINENCE
Importance: Substantial shifts in perception and policy regarding cannabis have recently occurred, with use of cannabis increasing while its perceived harm decreases. One possible risk of increased cannabis use is poorer cognitive functioning, especially in youth.
Objective: To provide the first quantitative synthesis of the literature examining cannabis and cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults (with a mean age of 26 years and younger).
Data Sources: PubMed, PsycInfo, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, and bibliographies of relevant reviews were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language studies from the date the databases began through May 2017.
Study Selection: Consensus criteria were used to determine study inclusion through abstract and manuscript review.
Data Extraction and Synthesis: This study followed Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Effect size estimates were calculated using multivariate mixed-effects models for cognitive functioning outcomes classified into 10 domains.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Results from neurocognitive tests administered in cross-sectional studies were primary outcomes, and we examined the influence of a priori explanatory variables on variability in effect size.
Results: Sixty-nine studies of 2152 cannabis users (mean [SD] age, 20.6 [2.8] years; 1472 [68.4%] male) and 6575 comparison participants with minimal cannabis exposure were included (mean [SD] age, 20.8 [3.4]; 3669 [55.8%] male). Results indicated a small overall effect size (presented as mean d) for reduced cognitive functioning associated with frequent or heavy cannabis use (d, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.17; P Conclusions and Relevance: Associations between cannabis use and cognitive functioning in cross-sectional studies of adolescents and young adults are small and may be of questionable clinical importance for most individuals. Furthermore, abstinence of longer than 72 hours diminishes cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use. Although other outcomes (eg, psychosis) were not examined in the included studies, results indicate that previous studies of cannabis in youth may have overstated the magnitude and persistence of cognitive deficits associated with use. Reported deficits may reflect residual effects from acute use or withdrawal. Future studies should examine individual differences in susceptibility to cannabis-associated cognitive dysfunction.
Les scientifiques ont effectué une revue de la littérature sur le cannabis et le fonctionnement cognitif chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes. Ils ont conclu que "les associations entre la consommation de cannabis et le fonctionnement cognitif dans les études transversales sur les adolescents et les jeunes adultes sont minimes et peuvent être d'une importance clinique discutable pour la plupart des individus. De plus, l'abstinence de plus de 72 heures diminue les déficits cognitifs associés à la consommation de cannabis." [IACM, 20/05/2018]
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Sous-type de document :||Méta-analyse / Meta-analysis ; Revue de la littérature / Literature review|
|Refs biblio. :||126|
|Affiliation :||Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA|