|Titre :||Agricultural innovations in Morocco's cannabis industry (2018)|
|Auteurs :||P. A. CHOUVY ; J. MACFARLANE|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||International Journal of Drug Policy (Vol.58, August 2018)|
|Article en page(s) :||85-91|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marché de la drogue / Drug market)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEMARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; CANNABIS ; AGRICULTURE ; PRODUCTION ; METHODE ; ETUDE QUALITATIVE
Background: Cannabis cultivation in Morocco's mountainous Rif region is undergoing its most profound development since mass production of hashish began in the early 1980s. The adoption of high-yielding varieties of cannabis, modern agricultural practices, and modern hashish production techniques began in the mid-2000s and accelerated after the mid-2010s, with the result that more potent and varied cannabis derivatives are now being produced and that increased quantities of highly potent hashish are seized in Europe.
Methods: This research was initiated to answer a simple research question: how, and to what extent, is the illegal cannabis industry modernizing in Morocco, now that we know that it explains the THC increase in hashish seized in Europe? To answer this question in the context of a lack of literature and quantitative data, empirical fieldwork was undertaken in cannabis fields and hashish-producing farms in Morocco in July and October 2017. A mostly qualitative approach to data collection was employed through participatory rural appraisals (discussions, interviews, direct observations). As such, this work builds predominantly upon primary research.
Results: Fieldwork showed that, subsequent to very localized, experimental beginnings in the early 2000s, the progressive and varied adoption of agricultural innovations at the cultivation and production stages has spread throughout the Rif during the 2010s. Interviews and direct observations conducted in the field indicate that the ongoing adoption of modern farming techniques has enabled the production of high-quality hashish and potent modern extracts. The still ongoing modernization and professionalization of the Moroccan cannabis industry is a testimony of the country's leading position in global hashish production.
Conclusion: What the future holds for Moroccan cannabis growers is difficult to predict. How legalization processes manifest themselves in Moroccan and European policies, and how upcoming developments will affect the social, economic, political and ecological stability of the region, remains largely unknown. However, the spread of cannabis cultivation in the Rif is clearly pushing economic and environmental limits, and there is an obvious need for innovations that mitigate such pressures.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Affiliation :||CNRS - Prodig, Paris, France|