|Is LSD toxic? (2018)
|D. E. NICHOLS ; C. S. GROB
|Type de document :
|Article : Périodique
|Forensic Science International (Vol.284, March 2018)
|Article en page(s) :
|PRO (Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods)
Thésaurus mots-clésLSD ; TOXICITE ; MORTALITE ; INTOXICATION ; SYMPTOME ; EFFET SECONDAIRE
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide. From a physiological perspective, however, LSD is known to be non-toxic and medically safe when taken at standard dosages (50-200 µg). The scientific literature, along with recent media reports, have unfortunately implicated "LSD toxicity" in five cases of sudden death. On close examination, however, two of these fatalities were associated with ingestion of massive overdoses, two were evidently in individuals with psychological agitation after taking standard doses of LSD who were then placed in maximal physical restraint positions (hogtied) by police, following which they suffered fatal cardiovascular collapse, and one case of extreme hyperthermia leading to death that was likely caused by a drug substituted for LSD with strong effects on central nervous system temperature regulation (e.g. 25i-NBOMe). Given the renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, it is important that an accurate understanding be established of the true causes of such fatalities that had been erroneously attributed to LSD toxicity, including massive overdoses, excessive physical restraints, and psychoactive drugs other than LSD.
LSD has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide.
LSD is known to be non-toxic and physiologically safe when used at moderate dosages.
Death attributed to LSD toxicity appear in conjunction only with maximal restraint.
Forensic investigators should understand the true causes of LSD-related fatalities.
|Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs
|Sous-type de document :
|Revue de la littérature / Literature review
|Refs biblio. :
|Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA