|Titre :||Buying drugs on a Darknet market: A better deal? Studying the online illicit drug market through the analysis of digital, physical and chemical data (2016)|
|Auteurs :||D. RHUMORBARBE ; L. STAEHLI ; J. BROSEUS ; Q. ROSSY ; P. ESSEIVA|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Forensic Science International (Vol.267, October 2016)|
|Article en page(s) :||173-182|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marché de la drogue / Drug market)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEINTERNET ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; ACHAT ; COMMERCE ; REVENDEUR ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; COCAINE ; CANNABIS
Darknet markets, also known as cryptomarkets, are websites located on the Darknet and designed to allow the trafficking of illicit products, mainly drugs. This study aims at presenting the added value of combining digital, chemical and physical information to reconstruct sellers' activities. In particular, this research focuses on Evolution, one of the most popular cryptomarkets active from January 2014 to March 2015.
Evolution source code files were analysed using Python scripts based on regular expressions to extract information about listings (i.e., sales proposals) and sellers. The results revealed more than 48,000 listings and around 2700 vendors claiming to send illicit drug products from 70 countries. The most frequent categories of illicit drugs offered by vendors were cannabis-related products (around 25%) followed by ecstasy (MDA, MDMA) and stimulants (cocaine, speed). The cryptomarket was then especially studied from a Swiss point of view. Illicit drugs were purchased from three sellers located in Switzerland. The purchases were carried out to confront digital information (e.g., the type of drug, the purity, the shipping country and the concealment methods mentioned on listings) with the physical analysis of the shipment packaging and the chemical analysis of the received product (purity, cutting agents, chemical profile based on minor and major alkaloids, chemical class). The results show that digital information, such as concealment methods and shipping country, seems accurate. But the illicit drugs purity is found to be different from the information indicated on their respective listings. Moreover, chemical profiling highlighted links between cocaine sold online and specimens seized in Western Switzerland.
This study highlights that (1) the forensic analysis of the received products allows the evaluation of the accuracy of digital data collected on the website, and (2) the information from digital and physical/chemical traces are complementary to evaluate the practices of the online selling of illicit drugs on cryptomarkets.
The Evolution cryptomarket is described through the analysis of source code files.
Illicit drug orders on Evolution and chemical analyses are performed.
The study of packaging reveals concealment techniques used to avoid detection.
Products purity does not correspond with information provided on listings.
Chemical profiling reveals a relationship between purchases and police seizures.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Refs biblio. :||44|
|Affiliation :||Ecole des Sciences Criminelles, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland|