|Titre :||Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands: Data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre (2015)|
|Auteurs :||L. HONDEBRINK ; J. J. NUGTEREN-VAN LONKHUYZEN ; D. VAN DER GOUWE ; T. M. BRUNT|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Vol.147, February 2015)|
|Article en page(s) :||109-115|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marché de la drogue / Drug market)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASEDROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; SURVEILLANCE EPIDEMIOLOGIQUE ; TOXICOLOGIE ; EFFET SECONDAIRE ; MEPHEDRONE ; PHENOMENE EMERGENT ; SYMPTOME
|Mots-clés:||méthoxétamine ; MXE|
Background: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with data regarding drug-related intoxications.
Methods: Data from the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) and the Dutch Poisons Information Centre (DPIC) were combined and jointly analyzed. Results The number of drug samples submitted to DIMS for analysis containing NPS increased from 22 in 2007 to 431 samples in 2013. The most frequently submitted NPS in 2013 included 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), methoxetamine (MXE) and 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB). From 2012 onwards, the number of NPS bought as drug of choice exceeded those appearing as adulterants in established drugs. The DPIC was consulted about 35 NPS exposures in 2013, most frequently involving 4-FA, mephedrone, MXE, 2C-B and 6-APB. Following NPS exposure, neurological and psychological symptoms were most frequently reported, like agitation and hallucinations. In addition, cardiovascular symptoms like hypertension and tachycardia often occurred.
Conclusions: NPS are currently being purchased as drug of choice in The Netherlands and their availability and use is increasing. Although pharmacological and toxicological data are scarce, NPS can induce pronounced clinical effects. Therefore, the monitoring of trends in NPS prevalence needs to be continued, combined with reported clinical effects, and preferably supported by analytical confirmation of exposures in such patients.
The presence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands is increasing.
Most prevalent NPS in The Netherlands are 4-FA, 2C-B, MXE and 5/6-APB.
All NPS-exposed patients on whom the Dutch Poisons Information Centre (DPIC) was contacted reported clinical symptoms.
Most frequently reported symptoms include cardiovascular and neurological effects.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Affiliation :||National Poisons Information Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands|