|Titre :||Cannabis cultivation in Quebec: Between space-time hotspots and coldspots (2015)|
|Auteurs :||V. CHADILLON-FARINACCI ; P. APPARICIO ; C. MORSELLI|
|Type de document :||Article : Périodique|
|Dans :||International Journal of Drug Policy (Vol.26, n°3, March 2015)|
|Article en page(s) :||311-322|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marché de la drogue / Drug market)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASECANNABIS ; PRODUCTION ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; METHODE ; CULTURE PRIVEE ; EVOLUTION ; CRIMINALITE ; CULTURE ILLICITE ; MODELE STATISTIQUE ; GEOGRAPHIE
Thésaurus GéographiqueQUEBEC ; CANADA
Background: Cannabis cultivation has become increasingly localized, whether soil-based or hydroponic growing methods are used. Characteristics of a given location, such as its climate and the equipment it requires may influence general accessibility or attract different types of offenders based on potential profits. The location of crops, especially hydroponic crops, suggests a certain proximity to the consumer market via semi-urban and urban environments, while making it possible to avoid detection. This article examines the cannabis market through its cultivation.
Methods: The stability of temporal and spatial clusters of cannabis cultivation, hotspots, and coldspots between 2001 and 2009 in the province of Quebec, Canada, are addressed. Studying the geography of crime is not a new endeavor, but coldspots are rarely documented in drug market research. Using arrests and general population data, as well as Kulldorff's scan statistics, results show that the temporal distribution of cannabis cultivation is highly seasonal for soil-based methods.
Results: Hydroponic production shows adaptation to its soil-based counterpart. Stable patterns are found for both spatial distributions. Hotspots for soil-based cultivation are found near several urban centers and the Ontario border. For hydroponic cannabis cultivation, a new hotspot suggests the emergence of an American demand for Quebec-grown cannabis between 2007 and 2009. Curiously, the region surrounding Montreal, the largest urban center in Quebec, is a recurrent and stable coldspot for both methods of cultivation.
Conclusion: For all periods, spatial clusters are stronger for soil-based methods than in the hydroponic context. Temporal differences and spatial similarities between soil-based cultivation and hydroponic cultivation are discussed. The role of the metropolis is also addressed.
Soil-based cultivation shows temporal stability over nearly a decade.
Hydroponics show a flexible adaptation to the seasonal market dynamics.
The two methods of cultivation appear spatially stable over the subperiods.
The attraction of the largest city and borders is shown by hotspots proximity.
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|
|Affiliation :||École de criminologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), Canada|