|An overview of new psychoactive substances and the outlets supplying them
|C. KELLEHER ; R. CHRISTIE ; K. LALOR ; J. FOX ; M. BOWDEN ; C. O'DONNELL
|Type de document :
|Dublin : NACD (National Advisory Committee on Drugs), 2011
|176 p. / ann., tabl.
|MAR (Marchés / Markets)
Thésaurus mots-clésPHENOMENE EMERGENT ; DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; VENTE ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; INTERNET ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; REDUCTION DES RISQUES ET DES DOMMAGES ; LEGISLATION ; RECOMMANDATION ; TYPE D'USAGE ; USAGE RECREATIF ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; CANNABINOIDES ; MEPHEDRONE
This report represents the outcome of a review of new psychoactive substances within the Irish context, including a review of the outlets that supply these substances. The review was commissioned by the National Advisory Committee on Drugs (NACD) in accordance with Action 14 of the National Drugs Strategy (interim) 2009-2016. Action 14 provides for the monitoring of 'head shops' and other outlets for the sale of psychoactive substances, under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1977 and the Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations 2007. Researchers at the Centre for Social and Educational Research (CSER) within the School of Social Sciences and Law at Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), and at the School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DIT), conducted the review between May and August 2010.
The proliferation of head shops and online retailers has facilitated the emergence of a range of new psychoactive substances in Ireland. Such outlets have supplied products containing powerful synthetic substances that mimic the common illegal stimulants cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine; they have also supplied synthetic cannabinoids designed to serve as cannabis substitutes. Often these substances are 'research chemicals', with no medicinal value, and where there is little existing knowledge in relation to their safety or toxicity. The location of head shops in prominent areas has highlighted their existence, and has fuelled concerns relating to their unknown potential for causing harm. The 'head shop phenomenon' has received unprecedented attention from the general public and the media, while the dynamic nature of the phenomenon has led to demands for a swift and comprehensive response from legislators. […]
This review represents the aggregation of available knowledge on new psychoactive substances within the Irish context, and empirical research aimed at providing new insights into this complex phenomenon. Specifically, the review sought to assess the availability and accessibility of new psychoactive substances in retail outlets throughout Ireland and online, and to identify and describe the products, and where possible, their specific contents. A range of new psychoactive substances was acquired and was subjected to Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) chemical analysis in order to identify active constituents. The availability of reference standards for the analysis of new psychoactive substances was also determined.
Alongside the analyses, published data in relation to new psychoactive substances and their effects were reviewed and an online survey of users of head shop products or 'legal highs' (as they are commonly known) was conducted in order to gain insights into patterns of use and reported effects. To further explore the use and effects of these substances, semi-structured interviews were conducted with both 'recreational' users and 'problem' drug users. Based on available information and data gathered, a number of risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances were identified. Harm-reduction measures to minimise risk to users were considered in light of existing advice for users of cannabis and stimulant drugs. Finally, measures taken in other jurisdictions to restrict psychoactive substances were examined.
|Autres substances / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs
|Centre for Social and Educational Research, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland