|Titre :||The transatlantic cocaine market. Research paper|
|Auteurs :||ONUDC / UNODC|
|Type de document :||Rapport|
|Editeur :||Vienna : UNODC, 2011|
|Format :||64 p. / tabl., graph., fig.|
|Discipline :||MAR (Marchés / Markets)|
Thésaurus TOXIBASETRAFIC INTERNATIONAL ; COCAINE ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; SAISIE ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; EVOLUTION ; TRANSPORT MARITIME ; TRANSPORT AERIEN ; PREVALENCE ; GEOGRAPHIE
Thésaurus GéographiqueINTERNATIONAL ; AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST ; EUROPE ; AMERIQUE
• Global demand for cocaine has shifted. Demand in the United States was more than four times as high as in Europe in 1998, but just over a decade later, the volume and value of the West and Central European cocaine market (US$33 billion) is approaching parity with that of the US (US$37 billion). Two thirds of European cocaine users live in just three countries: the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy. With Germany and France, these countries represent 80% of European cocaine consumption.
• European cocaine seizures increased rapidly between 1998 and 2006, peaking at some 121 tons. They have dropped off sharply since then, to some 53 tons in 2009, while at most, European demand has stabilized. There have been increases in seizures in South America, but the price of pure cocaine has not increased greatly in Europe, suggesting that traffickers have found new ways of evading law enforcement.
• In the last decade, most (about 60%) of the cocaine seized was taken at sea or in ports. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela was the most prominent country of origin for direct cocaine shipments to Europe, with the cocaine coming mainly from Colombia.
• It appears that most of Europe’s cocaine enters by sea, primarily via Spain. Nearly half the cocaine seized in Europe was taken by Spanish authorities, two-thirds of which was detected in international waters and 11% in containers.
• Excluding what is imported for local consumption, it is estimated that about 21 tons of cocaine were trafficked from West Africa to Europe in 2009. This is down sharply from two years before, when the total could have been as high as 47 tons.
• In addition to the health consequences of cocaine use, the impact of cocaine trafficking includes drug-funded violence, political instability and corruption in many areas.
[From the key findings]
|Note de contenu :||
1. The evolution of the global cocaine market:
a) Shifts in supply and demand
b) Evolution of trafficking routes
c) Current value and money flows
2. Current transatlantic trafficking routes:
b) Seizures in Europe
c) Commercial air couriers to Europe
d) Maritime trafficking
e) Maritime trafficking routes through the Caribbean
f) Maritime routes to West Africa
g) Air routes to West Africa
3. Trafficking from West Africa to Europe:
a) Maritime routes from West Africa to Europe
b) Air routes from West Africa to Europe
c) Land routes from West Africa to Europe
4. Distribution within Europe.
5. The impact of cocaine trafficking to Europe:
a) In the Andean production countries
b) In transit countries in the Americas
c) In West Africa
d) In Europe
6. Implications for policy.
Initiatives supported by UNODC
|Domaine :||Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs|