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14C analyses quantify time lag between coca leaf harvest and street-level seizure of cocaine / J. R. EHLERINGER ; J. F. CASALE ; J. E. BARNETTE ; X. XU ; M. J. LOTT ; J. HURLEY in Forensic Science International, Vol.214, n°1-3 (10 January 2012)
Titre : 14C analyses quantify time lag between coca leaf harvest and street-level seizure of cocaine Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. R. EHLERINGER ; J. F. CASALE ; J. E. BARNETTE ; X. XU ; M. J. LOTT ; J. HURLEY Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 7-12 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
COCA ; COCAINE ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; PRODUCTION ; SAISIE ; MESURES QUANTITATIVES ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : Measurements were made on the natural abundance 14C content (14C) of cocaine specimens seized between 2003 and 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which 14C analyses could quantify the "age" of recent cocaine seizures. Here "age" of a seized cocaine specimen is defined as the time period between when a coca leaf was harvested in South America and its seizure as cocaine at either the international or domestic street levels. Based on 14C analyses of seizure specimens, there were no statistically significant differences in the ages of domestic cocaine HCl and cocaine base specimens seized on the streets in different locations across the United States. Between 2007 and 2009, the average age of a street-level cocaine seizure in the United States was 24.6 ± 1.1 months. Cocaine shipment seizures that were in excess of 150 kg during this time period had an average age of 18.2 ± 1.4 months, whereas smaller shipment seizures were significantly older with an average age of 22.3 ± 0.6 months. Analyses of the largest cocaine shipment seizures suggested that these seizures were composed of specimens with different ages, possibly representing accumulations over as much as a 31-month period.
• Columbian drug traffickers require ∼24 months between coca leaf growth and the arrival of cocaine in the United States.
• Seizures of cocaine base and cocaine HCL were not statistically different in age.
• Foreign and domestically seized cocaine were not statistically different in age.
• Seizures of large cocaine shipments were statistically younger than small cocaine shipments.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 20 Affiliation : Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA Permalink :
in Forensic Science International > Vol.214, n°1-3 (10 January 2012) . - 7-12[article]
Titre : 2017 National drug threat assessment Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : US Department of Justice ; Drug Enforcement Administration Année de publication : 2017 Importance : 182 p. Présentation : ann. ; graph. ; ill. ; tabl. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETATS-UNIS ; MEXIQUE ; COLOMBIE
SURDOSE ; MORTALITE ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; OPIOIDES ; EVOLUTION ; DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; FENTANYLOIDES ; METHAMPHETAMINE ; COCAINE ; MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; ORGANISATION CRIMINELLE ; TRAFIC INTERNATIONAL ; HEROINE ; CANNABIS ; DISPOSITIF DE SOIN ; ADMISSION ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : The 2017 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA) outlines the threats posed to the United States by domestic and international drug trafficking and the abuse of illicit drugs.
Over the past 10 years, the drug landscape in the United States has shifted, with the opioid threat - including controlled prescription drugs (CPDs), fentanyl and other synthetic opioids, and heroin - reaching epidemic levels and impacting significant portions of the United States. While the current opioid crisis has received significant attention, other drugs of abuse remain prevalent. These include methamphetamine, cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS), and marijuana. In addition, drug poisoning deaths are the leading cause of injury death in the United States; they are currently at their highest ever recorded level and, every year since 2011, have outnumbered deaths by firearms, motor vehicle crashes, suicide, and homicide.
Domaine : Autres substances / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : USA Lien : https://www.dea.gov/divisions/hq/2017/hq102317.shtml Permalink : 4-Methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4'-DMAR, 4,4'-dimethylaminorex): availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity / J. GLANVILLE ; P. I. DARGAN ; D. M. WOOD in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, Vol.30, n°3 (May 2015)
Titre : 4-Methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4'-DMAR, 4,4'-dimethylaminorex): availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. GLANVILLE ; P. I. DARGAN ; D. M. WOOD Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 193-198 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
DROGUES DE SYNTHESE ; TOXICITE ; INTERNET ; PRIX ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; PREVALENCE ; TYPE D'USAGE ; EFFET SECONDAIRE
Discipline : PRO Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods Résumé : Objective: 4-Methyl-5-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-amine (4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR)) is a derivative of the controlled substances aminorex and 4-methylaminorex marketed as a potential novel psychoactive substance. This paper brings together the published scientific and 'grey' literature to understand 4,4'-DMAR as a novel psychoactive substance.
Methods: Searches of the published scientific and 'grey' literature, using the keywords '4-methyl-euphoria', '4-methyl-U4Euh', '4-M-4-MAR', '4,4-dimethylaminorex', '4,4'-DMAR', 'para-methyl-4-aminorex' and 'Serotoni', were undertaken to identify information on the availability, prevalence of use and desired/unwanted effects of 4,4'-DMAR.
Results: No studies have reported the prevalence of use of 4,4'-DMAR. Internet snapshot studies in April and May 2014 showed availability of 4,4'-DMAR from one and two Internet suppliers respectively. Price decreased with increasing purchase amounts from €12/g for a 1-g purchase to €2.20/g for a 100-g purchase in April 2014. Internet discussion fora suggest that the desired and unwanted effects of 4,4'-DMAR are similar to those seen with other sympathomimetic drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and mephedrone, although the duration of unwanted effects and 'comedown' appear to be longer. Unwanted effects were reported at doses of 5-200 mg, which overlaps with the reported doses (10-200 mg) associated with desired effects. 4,4'-DMAR has been detected, along with other drugs, in 27 deaths in Europe; the contribution of the 4,4'-DMAR in these deaths has not been established.
Conclusions: Currently, there appears to limited availability of 4,4'-DMAR; therefore, use is likely to be low. Its desired and unwanted effects appear similar to other sympathomimetic recreational drugs such as methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or mephedrone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Affiliation : Clinical Toxicology, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Permalink :
in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental > Vol.30, n°3 (May 2015) . - 193-198[article]4-MTA: A new synthetic drug on the dance scene / A. R. WINSTOCK in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.67, n°2 (July 2002)
Titre : 4-MTA: A new synthetic drug on the dance scene Titre traduit : (La 4-MTA : une nouvelle drogue de synthèse en milieu festif) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. R. WINSTOCK ; K. WOLFF ; J. RAMSEY Année de publication : 2002 Article en page(s) : 111-115 Note générale : Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2002, 67, (2), 111-115 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
4-MTA ; AMPHETAMINES ; ECSTASY ; USAGE RECREATIF ; MILIEU FESTIF ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; ENQUETE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : 4-MTA (p-methylthioamphetamine) is a new synthetic sulphur derivative of amphetamine that has been associated with six deaths since it was first identified in Europe in 1997. Sold as 'ecstasy' or 'Flatliners', the drug like MDMA is a potent serotonin releaser. Using a self-nominated sampling methodology we accessed over 1000 dance drug users through a magazine survey. Ten percent of respondents thought that they had used 4-MTA. Those with experience of 4-MTA tended to come from a sub-population of heavy 'ecstasy'-users. Responses to the effects of the drug were mixed, although about a quarter of those who believed that they had tried 4-MTA thought that they would use it again. (Review's abstract.) Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 32 Affiliation : Natl Addict. Ctr., Inst. Psychiatr., Addict. Sci. Bildg, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF, Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom. Numéro Toxibase : 804112 Centre Emetteur : 08 CAS Strasbourg Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.67, n°2 (July 2002) . - 111-115[article]Access to alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption: a multi-level study in Melbourne, Australia / A. M. KAVANAGH ; M. T. KELLY ; L. KRNJACKI ; L. THORNTON ; D. JOLLEY ; S. V. SUBRAMANIAN ; G. TURRELL ; R. J. BENTLEY in Addiction, Vol.106, n°10 (October 2011)
Titre : Access to alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption: a multi-level study in Melbourne, Australia Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. M. KAVANAGH ; M. T. KELLY ; L. KRNJACKI ; L. THORNTON ; D. JOLLEY ; S. V. SUBRAMANIAN ; G. TURRELL ; R. J. BENTLEY Année de publication : 2011 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; DEBIT DE BOISSONS ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; ABUS ; PROFIL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIQUE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : AIMS: To assess the association between access to off-premises alcohol outlets and harmful alcohol consumption.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Multi-level study of 2334 adults aged 18-75 years from 49 census collector districts (the smallest spatial unit in Australia at the time of survey) in metropolitan Melbourne.
MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol outlet density was defined as the number of outlets within a 1-km road network of respondents' homes and proximity was the shortest road network distance to the closest outlet from their home. Using multi-level logistic regression we estimated the association between outlet density and proximity and four measures of harmful alcohol consumption: drinking at levels associated with short-term harm at least weekly and monthly; drinking at levels associated with long-term harm and frequency of consumption.
FINDINGS: Density of alcohol outlets was associated with increased risk of drinking alcohol at levels associated with harm. The strongest association was for short-term harm at least weekly [odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.16]. When density was fitted as a categorical variable, the highest risk of drinking at levels associated with short-term harm was when there were eight or more outlets (short-term harm weekly: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.22-4.54 and short-term harm monthly: OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.07-3.04). We found no evidence to support an association between proximity and harmful alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of off-premises alcohol outlets in a locality is associated with the level of harmful alcohol consumption in that area. Reducing the number of off-premises alcohol outlets could reduce levels of harmful alcohol consumption.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Affiliation : The Centre for Women's Health Gender and Society, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.106, n°10 (October 2011)[article]PermalinkL'accréditation des informations liées à l'usage de nouvelles drogues de synthèse. Une étude à partir des dispositifs de médiation en place sur le web / T. DELPRATPermalinkAcheter des médicaments sur Internet : moins cher et plus risqué ? / D. RHUMORBARBE in Dépendances, n°55 (Juin 2015)PermalinkAction commune 97/396/JAI du 16 juin 1997 fondée sur l'article K.3 du traité sur l'Union européenne, relative à l'échange d'informations, à l'évaluation des risques et au contrôle des nouvelles drogues de synthèse / Conseil de l'Union européennePermalinkAdapting the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) to examine the feasibility of monitoring trends in the markets for 'party drug' / L. TOPPPermalinkAddictions et sociétés marchandes / A. MARTINELLI in Dépendances, n°61 (Novembre 2017)PermalinkL'adhésion des Français aux projets de loi sur les boissons alcoolisées / IFOPPermalinkAdolescent marijuana use and perceived ease of access before and after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado / S. B. HARPIN ; A. BROOKS-RUSSELL ; M. MA ; K. A. JAMES ; A. H. LEVINSON in Substance Use and Misuse, Vol.53, n°3 (2018)PermalinkAfrique noire, poudre blanche. L'Afrique sous la coupe des cartels de la drogue / C. CHAMPINPermalinkAlcohol and student performance: Estimating the effect of legal access / J. M. LINDO ; I. D. SWENSEN ; G. R. WADDELL in Journal of Health Economics, Vol.32, n°1 (January 2013)Permalink