Ajouter le résultat dans votre panier Faire une suggestion Affiner la recherche
Addictive behaviors and healthcare renunciation for economic reasons in a French population-based sample / S. BAGGIO ; M. DUPUIS ; J. B. RICHARD ; F. BECK in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.49 (November 2017)
Titre : Addictive behaviors and healthcare renunciation for economic reasons in a French population-based sample Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. BAGGIO ; M. DUPUIS ; J. B. RICHARD ; F. BECK Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 1-7 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE TRANSVERSALE ; POPULATION GENERALE ; ACCES AUX SOINS ; INEGALITE DE SANTE ; JEU PATHOLOGIQUE ; REVENU ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; FACTEUR PREDICTIF
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Healthcare renunciation for economic reasons is a major health concern, but it has been scarcely investigated among drug users, even if drug users constitute a vulnerable population in need of medical care. This study investigated associations of healthcare renunciation for economic reasons and addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, illicit drug use, and gambling) in a population-based sample of adults living in France, a country with universal health coverage. Data were collected using the 2014 Health Barometer, a French cross-sectional survey conducted among a random representative sample of the general population aged 18-64 (n=12,852). Measures included healthcare renunciation, substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drugs) and gambling. Experimental/recreational and heavy/chronic use were assessed. Logistic regressions were used to test the relationship between healthcare renunciation and addictive behaviors, controlling for relevant covariates. A total of 25% of the participants had renounced care at least once in the previous twelve months. Most variables of drug use were significantly associated with increased healthcare renunciation. This was the case for heavy/hazardous use and experimental/recreational use. Regular gambling was not associated with healthcare renunciation, but disordered gambling was. This study showed that addictive behaviors, including substance use and gambling, were part of the burden of vulnerability of people who forgo care. Therefore, drug use and gambling patterns should be a focus in the development of policies to reduce health inequalities, not only for heavy and chronic drug users. Domaine : Addictions sans produit / Addictions without drug ; Alcool / Alcohol ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Affiliation : Life Course and Social Inequality Research Centre, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in International Journal of Drug Policy > Vol.49 (November 2017) . - 1-7[article]Afghanistan opium survey. 2014. Socio-economic analysis / ONUDC / UNODC
Titre de série : Afghanistan opium survey Titre : 2014. Socio-economic analysis Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : ONUDC / UNODC Editeur : New York : UNODC/UNODCCP Année de publication : 2015 Importance : 61 p. Présentation : fig., graph., tabl. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ENQUETE ; OPIUM ; GEOGRAPHIE ; ECONOMIE ; PRODUCTION ; REVENU ; AGRICULTURE ; PRIX
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : Afghanistan is currently going through a crucial transitional phase as it attempts to strengthen its civil administration and stabilize the country for its post-2014 political scenario. Such comprehensive political changes can only be accomplished once an institutional framework to strengthen and optimize the economic and socio-economic opportunities in the country is in place.
As the cultivation of opium is an important economic activity in many parts of the country and constitutes a significant share of the national economy, the comprehensive analysis of economic opportunities and challenges place special emphasis on this sector. Furthermore, given the multitude of factors driving opium poppy cultivation (and illicit crop cultivation in general), the findings of this survey can support policy responses formulated based on solid evidence. This part of the Afghanistan Opium Survey 2014 is therefore dedicated to the analysis of the opiate economy in Afghanistan and the factors and determinants driving opium poppy cultivation. It looks at opium cultivation from both an economic point of view, which includes indicators such as household income and the value of the country's opiate economy, and from a socio-economic point of view, which aims to shed light on the factors that influence opium poppy cultivation. [Extract]
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Lien : http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop-monitoring/index.html?tag=Afghanistan Permalink : Afghanistan opium survey. 2015. Cultivation and production / ONUDC / UNODC
Titre de série : Afghanistan opium survey Titre : 2015. Cultivation and production Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : ONUDC / UNODC Editeur : New York : UNODC/UNODCCP Année de publication : 2015 Importance : 69 p. Présentation : fig., graph., tabl. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ENQUETE ; OPIUM ; GEOGRAPHIE ; ECONOMIE ; PRODUCTION ; REVENU ; AGRICULTURE ; PRIX
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : The total area under opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan was estimated at 183,000 hectares in 2015, a 19% decrease from the previous year. Area under opium poppy cultivation has decreased for the first time since 2009 but it is at its fourth highest level since the beginning of estimations in 1994; higher levels have been estimated in 2007, 2013 and 2014.
Total eradication of opium poppy increased by 40% in 2015, to 3,760 hectares, while less security incidences occurred than in 2014: in 2015, 5 lives were lost and 18 persons were injured. In 2014, 13 lives were lost and 26 persons were injured.
Potential opium production was estimated at 3,300 tons in 2015, a decrease of 48% from its 2014 level (6,400 tons). The low production is a result of a reduction in area under cultivation, but more importantly of a reduction in opium yield per hectare.
Accounting for 58% of national production, the Southern region continued to produce the vast majority of opium in Afghanistan. With 22% of national production, the Western region was the country's second most important opium-producing region in 2015.
In 2015, possibly caused by the decrease in supply, opium prices increased in all regions of Afghanistan. However, at US$ 0.57 billion, or the equivalent of roughly 4% of Afghanistan's estimated GDP, the farm-gate value of opium production decreased by 33% in 2014 to its lowest level since 2009 (not adjusted for inflation). [Extracts]
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Lien : http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop-monitoring/index.html?tag=Afghanistan Permalink : Afghanistan opium survey. 2017. Cultivation and production / ONUDC / UNODC
Titre de série : Afghanistan opium survey Titre : 2017. Cultivation and production Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : ONUDC / UNODC Editeur : New York : UNODC/UNODCCP Année de publication : 2017 Importance : 73 p. Présentation : fig., graph., tabl. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ENQUETE ; OPIUM ; GEOGRAPHIE ; ECONOMIE ; PRODUCTION ; REVENU ; AGRICULTURE ; PRIX ; EVOLUTION ; ERADICATION
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : FRANÇAIS :
La production d'opium en Afghanistan a augmenté de 87% comparé à 2016, atteignant un niveau record de 9 000 tonnes en 2017. La superficie occupée par les cultures de pavot à opium a également augmenté, atteignant une surface totale record de 328 000 hectares (ha) en 2017, ce qui représente une hausse de 63% par rapport aux 201 000 hectares de 2016. [...]
L'augmentation de la production résulte principalement d'une augmentation de la surface cultivée pour la production de pavot à opium, mais l'augmentation du rendement en opium par hectare a également contribué. La plus forte augmentation de rendement a eu lieu dans la région sud, où le rendement moyen a augmenté de 19%, et dans la région nord-est, avec une hausse de 14%.
L'Afghanistan est le premier cultivateur mondial du pavot qui sert à produire l'opium et l'héroïne. Les niveaux record de production d'opium et de culture du pavot en 2017 créent de multiples défis pour le pays, ses voisins et les nombreux autres pays de transit ou de destination des opiacés afghans. Une augmentation des insurrections et du financement des groupes terroristes en Afghanistan est probable tandis que des quantités plus importantes d'héroïne de haute qualité et à bas coût atteindront les marchés de consommation à travers le monde, conduisant à une augmentation de la consommation et des conséquences néfastes qui y sont liées. [Extraits du communiqué de presse]
Opium production in Afghanistan increased by 87 per cent to a record level of 9,000 metric tons in 2017 compared with 2016 levels, according to the latest Afghanistan Opium Survey figures released today by the Afghan Ministry of Counter Narcotics and UNODC. The area under opium poppy cultivation also increased to a record 328,000 hectares (ha) in 2017, up 63 per cent compared with 201,000 hectares in 2016. [...]
The increase in production is mainly a result of an increase in the area under opium poppy cultivation, while an increase in opium yield per hectare also contributed. The largest increase of yields occurred in the Southern region where the average yield grew by 19 per cent and the north-eastern region, with a 14 per cent rise.
Afghanistan is the world's top cultivator of the poppy from which opium and heroin are produced. The 2017 record levels of opium production and poppy cultivation create multiple challenges for the country, its neighbours and the many other countries that are transit for or destination of Afghan opiates. Increased insurgency and funding to terrorist groups is likely within Afghanistan while more high quality, low cost heroin will reach consumer markets across the world leading to increased consumption and related harmful consequences. [Extract from the press release]
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Lien : http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop-monitoring/index.html?tag=Afghanistan URL : http://www.unodc.org/unodc/fr/frontpage/2017/November/afghan-opium-production-jumps-to-record-level--up-87-per-cent_-survey.html Permalink : Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease, cancer, injury, admission to hospital, and mortality: a prospective cohort study / A. SMYTH ; K. K. TEO ; S. RANGARAJAN ; M. O'DONNELL ; X. ZHANG ; P. RANA ; D. P. LEONG ; G. DAGENAIS ; P. SERON ; A. ROSENGREN ; A. E. SCHUTTE ; P. LOPEZ-JARAMILLO ; A. OGUZ ; J. CHIFAMBA ; R. DIAZ ; S. LEAR ; A. AVEZUM ; R. KUMAR ; V. MOHAN ; A. SZUBA ; L. WEI ; W. YANG ; B. JIAN ; M. McKEE ; S. YUSUF in Lancet (The), Vol.386, n°10007 (November 14, 2015)
Titre : Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease, cancer, injury, admission to hospital, and mortality: a prospective cohort study Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. SMYTH ; K. K. TEO ; S. RANGARAJAN ; M. O'DONNELL ; X. ZHANG ; P. RANA ; D. P. LEONG ; G. DAGENAIS ; P. SERON ; A. ROSENGREN ; A. E. SCHUTTE ; P. LOPEZ-JARAMILLO ; A. OGUZ ; J. CHIFAMBA ; R. DIAZ ; S. LEAR ; A. AVEZUM ; R. KUMAR ; V. MOHAN ; A. SZUBA ; L. WEI ; W. YANG ; B. JIAN ; M. McKEE ; S. YUSUF Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 1945-1954 Note générale : Comment: Connor J.P., Hall W. (2015) Alcohol burden in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, Vol. 386, n° 10007, p. 1922-1924. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; COHORTE ; COEUR ; CANCER ; APPAREIL CARDIOVASCULAIRE ; ADMISSION ; MORTALITE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE DESCRIPTIVE ; REVENU ; BOISSON ALCOOLISEE ; TYPE D'USAGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background: Alcohol consumption is proposed to be the third most important modifiable risk factor for death and disability. However, alcohol consumption has been associated with both benefits and harms, and previous studies were mostly done in high-income countries. We investigated associations between alcohol consumption and outcomes in a prospective cohort of countries at different economic levels in five continents.
Methods: We included information from 12 countries participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, a prospective cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study associations with mortality (n=2723), cardiovascular disease (n=2742), myocardial infarction (n=979), stroke (n=817), alcohol-related cancer (n=764), injury (n=824), admission to hospital (n=8786), and for a composite of these outcomes (n=11 963).
Findings: We included 114 970 adults, of whom 12 904 (11%) were from high-income countries (HICs), 24 408 (21%) were from upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), 48 845 (43%) were from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), and 28 813 (25%) were from low-income countries (LICs). Median follow-up was 4.3 years (IQR 3.0-6.0). Current drinking was reported by 36 030 (31%) individuals, and was associated with reduced myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.93]), but increased alcohol-related cancers (HR 1.51 [1.22-1.89]) and injury (HR 1.29 [1.04-1.61]). High intake was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.31 [1.04-1.66]). Compared with never drinkers, we identified significantly reduced hazards for the composite outcome for current drinkers in HICs and UMICs (HR 0.84 [0.77-0.92]), but not in LMICs and LICs, for which we identified no reductions in this outcome (HR 1.07 [0.95-1.21]; p(interaction) Interpretation: Current alcohol consumption had differing associations by clinical outcome, and differing associations by income region. However, we identified sufficient commonalities to support global health strategies and national initiatives to reduce harmful alcohol use.
Funding: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, AstraZeneca (Canada), Sanofi-Aventis (France and Canada), Boehringer Ingelheim (Germany and Canada), Servier, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, King Pharma, and national or local organisations in participating countries.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Permalink :
in Lancet (The) > Vol.386, n°10007 (November 14, 2015) . - 1945-1954[article]Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels - results from an international study / U. GRITTNER ; S. KUNTSCHE ; G. GMEL ; K. BLOOMFIELD in European Journal of Public Health, Vol.23, n°2 (April 2013)PermalinkAn examination of sociodemographic correlates of ecstasy use among high school seniors in the United States / J. J. PALAMAR ; D. KAMBOUKOS in Substance Use and Misuse, Vol.49, n°13 (2014)PermalinkAre changes in financial strain associated with changes in alcohol use and smoking among older adults? / B. A. SHAW ; N. AGAHI ; N. KRAUSE in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol.72, n°6 (November 2011)PermalinkL'argent de la drogue en France. Estimation des marchés des drogues illicites en France / C. BEN LAKHDAR ; N. LALAM ; D. WEINBERGERPermalinkAssociation between cigarette smoking prevalence and income level: A systematic review and meta-analysis / B. CASETTA ; A. J. VIDELA ; A. BARDACH ; P. MORELLO ; N. SOTO ; K. LEE ; P. A. CAMACHO ; R. V. HERMOZA MOQUILLAZA ; A. CIAPPONI in Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol.19, n°12 (December 2017)PermalinkAssociation of family income supplements in adolescence with development of psychiatric and substance use disorders in adulthood among an American Indian population / E. J. COSTELLO ; ERKANLI A. ; W. COPELAND ; A. ANGOLD in Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol.303, n°19 (May 19, 2010)PermalinkAvailability and sales of alcohol in four Canadian provinces: A time-series analysis / B. TROLLDAL in Contemporary Drug Problems, Vol.32, n°3 (Fall 2005)PermalinkBarriers to effective tobacco-dependence treatment for the very poor / B. CHRISTIANSEN ; K. REEDER ; M. HILL ; T. B. BAKER ; M. C. FIORE in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol.73, n°6 (November 2012)PermalinkBidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms from adolescence through early adulthood among at-risk young men / S. R. WOMACK ; D. S. SHAW ; C. M. WEAVER ; E. E. FORBES in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol.77, n°2 (March 2016)PermalinkCannalex - Une analyse comparée des expériences de régulation du cannabis (Colorado, État de Washington, Uruguay). Rapport final synthétique / N. LALAM ; D. WEINBERGER ; D. ALIMI ; I. OBRADOVIC ; M. GANDILHONPermalink