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Which drugs cause overdose among opiate misusers ? Study of personal and witnessed overdoses / J. STRANG
Titre : Which drugs cause overdose among opiate misusers ? Study of personal and witnessed overdoses Titre traduit : (Quelles drogues entraînent des overdoses chez les usagers d'opiacés ? Etude réalisée auprès d'individus et de témoins) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. STRANG ; P. GRIFFITHS ; POWIS B. ; J. FOUNTAIN ; S. WILLIAMSON ; M. GOSSOP Année de publication : 1999 Importance : 253-261 Présentation : fig., tabl. Note générale : Drug and Alcohol Review, 1999, 18, (3), 253-261 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
OPIACES ; METHADONE ; HEROINE ; MEDICAMENTS ; INTERACTION CHIMIQUE ; SURDOSE ; MORTALITE
Résumé : FRANÇAIS :
Les larges prescriptions de méthadone en Angleterre conduisent à s'interroger sur sa toxicité et les risques d'overdose. L'étude porte sur 312 toxicomanes par voie intraveineuse, et concerne les overdoses fatales et non fatales. L'héroïne est la drogue la plus souvent impliquée dans les overdoses (>80%), dans les trois régions étudiées. La méthadone est responsable de la moitié des autres overdoses aux opiacés. Les associations sont fréquentes : héroïne plus méthadone ou héroïne plus non-opiacés.
Concern has been expressed at the widespread prescribing of methadone in view of its inherent toxicity. Commentators have opined that methadone is more toxic than heroin and causes more overdose deaths. However, data deficiencies and flawed analyses leave continuing uncertainty about this crucial policy issue. The relative contributions of heroin, other opiates (e.g. methadone) and non-opiate drugs to overdose and overdose deaths among drug misusers were examined in a community-recruited sample of 312 injecting drug misusers in London. Data were collected on last personal overdose (n = 117), last witnessed overdose (n = 167) and last witnessed fatal overdose (n = 55), and on the different drugs that had been involved with these overdoses. Heroin was involved in 83% of last personal overdoses, 90% of last witnessed overdoses and 80% of last witnessed fatal overdoses, while other opiates were involved in only 18%, 8% and 26%, respectively. Methadone accounted for about half of these "other opiate" overdoses. Overdoses involving a combination of heroin and a non-opiate were common-29%, 21% and 39%, respectively. Heroin was the drug most frequently involved in overdose across all 1hree areas of study. However, combinations of heroin and a non-opiate were surprisingly frequent, especially in witnessed fatal overdoses (as reported recently by other investigators using different methodologies). Considering the wide extent of methadone prescribing to this group, methadone was remarkably infrequently reported as responsible (solely or in combination) for either personal overdoses, (Author's abstract.)
Note de contenu : fig., tabl. Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 35 Affiliation : Nal Addict. Ctr, Inst. Psychiatr., Denmark Hill, London
Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom.
Numéro Toxibase : 803021 Centre Emetteur : 08 CAS Strasbourg Permalink : Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context / A. CALAFAT ; F. GARCIA ; M. JUAN ; E. BECONA ; J. R. FERNANDEZ-HERMIDA in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.138 (May 2014)
Titre : Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. CALAFAT ; F. GARCIA ; M. JUAN ; E. BECONA ; J. R. FERNANDEZ-HERMIDA Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 185-192 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
EUROPE ; SUEDE ; ROYAUME-UNI ; ESPAGNE ; PORTUGAL ; SLOVENIE ; REPUBLIQUE TCHEQUE
ADOLESCENT ; FACTEUR DE PROTECTION ; PARENTALITE ; PARENT ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; PERFORMANCE ; IMAGE DE SOI
Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Résumé : BACKGROUND: This study examines whether authoritative parenting style (characterized by warmth and strictness) is more protective against adolescent substances use than authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), indulgent (warmth but not strictness) and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles. Emergent research in diverse cultural contexts (mainly Southern European and Latin American countries) questions the fact that authoritative would always be the optimum parenting style.
DESIGN: Multi-factorial MANOVAs.
PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 7718 adolescents, 3774 males (48.9%), 11-19 year-olds (M=14.63 year-olds, SD=1.9 years) from Sweden, United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic.
MEASUREMENTS: Parenting style dimensions (warmth and strictness) and adolescent substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs); additionally another three adolescent outcomes were also measured (self-esteem, school performance and personal disturbances) all of them related in the literature with substance use.
FINDINGS: Both indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting in all the countries studied. Overall, our results support the idea that in Europe the indulgent parenting style performs as well as the authoritative one since adolescents' scores in the youth outcomes were equal (on substance use and personal disturbances) or even better (on self esteem and school performance) than for authoritative parenting style.
CONCLUSIONS: Parenting styles relate to substance use and other outcomes in the same way in different countries explored. The so-called indulgent parenting style appears to be as good as the authoritative in protecting against substance abuse.
L'autorité parentale ne serait pas le seul positionnement éducatif susceptible de prémunir les usages de substances psychoactives chez l'enfant. C'est du moins ce que tend à suggérer cette étude multifactorielle réalisée auprès d'un échantillon de 7718 adolescents âgés de 11 à 19 ans représentant 6 pays d'Europe. Une relation de type empathique et indulgente y serait favorable également voire plus favorable en termes de performances scolaires et de développement chez l'enfant de ressources psychologiques comme l'estime de soi. [Actualité des addictions, 25/06/2014]
Domaine : Plusieurs produits / Several products Affiliation : European Institute of Studies on Prevention (Irefrea), Palma de Mallorca, Spain Permalink :
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.138 (May 2014) . - 185-192[article]Who achieves low risk drinking during alcohol treatment? An analysis of patients in three alcohol clinical trials / K. WITKIEWITZ ; M. R. PEARSON ; K. A. HALLGREN ; S. A. MAISTO ; C. R. ROOS ; M. KIROUAC ; A. D. WILSON ; K. S. MONTES ; N. HEATHER in Addiction, Vol.112, n°12 (December 2017)
Titre : Who achieves low risk drinking during alcohol treatment? An analysis of patients in three alcohol clinical trials Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : K. WITKIEWITZ ; M. R. PEARSON ; K. A. HALLGREN ; S. A. MAISTO ; C. R. ROOS ; M. KIROUAC ; A. D. WILSON ; K. S. MONTES ; N. HEATHER Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 2112-2121 Note générale : Commentary: Abstinence or moderation - a choice for whom and why? Storbjörk J., p. 2122-2123. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETATS-UNIS ; ROYAUME-UNI
ALCOOL ; TRAITEMENT ; TYPE D'USAGE ; ETUDE CLINIQUE ; ABSTINENCE ; CONSOMMATION
Mots-clés : consommation contrôlée Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Résumé : Background and aims: There is evidence that low-risk drinking is possible during the course of alcohol treatment and can be maintained following treatment. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with low-risk drinking during treatment in a large sample of individuals as they received treatment for alcohol dependence.
Design: Integrated analysis of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Intervention (COMBINE) study, Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT) using repeated-measures latent class analysis to identify patterns of drinking and predictors of low-risk drinking patterns during treatment.
Setting: United States and United Kingdom.
Participants: Patients (n = 3589) with alcohol dependence receiving treatment in an alcohol clinical trial were primarily male (73.0%), white (82.0%) and non-married (41.7%), with an average age of 42.0 (standard deviation = 10.7).
Measurements: Self-reported weekly alcohol consumption during treatment was assessed using the Form-90 and validated with biological verification or collateral informants.
Findings: Seven patterns of drinking during treatment were identified: persistent heavy drinking (18.7% of the sample), increasing heavy drinking (9.6%), heavy and low-risk drinking (6.7%), heavy drinking alternating with abstinence (7.9%), low-risk drinking (6.8%), increasing low-risk drinking (10.5%) and abstinence (39.8%). Lower alcohol dependence severity and fewer drinks per day at baseline significantly predicted low-risk drinking patterns [e.g. each additional drink prior to baseline predicted a 27% increase in the odds of expected classification in heavy drinking versus low-risk drinking patterns; odds ratio = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10, 1.47, P = 0.002]. Greater negative mood and more heavy drinkers in the social network were significant predictors of expected membership in heavier drinking patterns.
Conclusions: Low-risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence. Individuals with lower dependence severity, less baseline drinking, fewer negative mood symptoms and fewer heavy drinkers in their social networks have a higher probability of achieving low-risk drinking during treatment.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 55 Affiliation : University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.112, n°12 (December 2017) . - 2112-2121[article]Who pre-drinks before a night out and why? Socioeconomic status and motives behind young people's pre-drinking in the United Kingdom / J. OSTERGAARD ; S. BASTHOLM ANDRADE in Journal of Substance Use, Vol.19, n°3 (June 2014)
Titre : Who pre-drinks before a night out and why? Socioeconomic status and motives behind young people's pre-drinking in the United Kingdom Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. OSTERGAARD ; S. BASTHOLM ANDRADE Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 229-238 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; JEUNE ; TYPE D'USAGE ; CATEGORIE SOCIO-PROFESSIONNELLE ; MOTIVATION ; ABUS ; DEBIT DE BOISSONS ; ENQUETE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Aim: To examine young people’s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink.
Methods: Multilevel logit and Poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18-35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns.
Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social.
Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Affiliation : SFI -The Danish National Centre For Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Journal of Substance Use > Vol.19, n°3 (June 2014) . - 229-238[article]Who sells what? Country specific differences in substance availability on the Agora cryptomarket / J. VAN BUSKIRK ; S. NAICKER ; A. ROXBURGH ; R. BRUNO ; L. BURNS in International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.35 (September 2016)
Titre : Who sells what? Country specific differences in substance availability on the Agora cryptomarket Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. VAN BUSKIRK ; S. NAICKER ; A. ROXBURGH ; R. BRUNO ; L. BURNS Année de publication : 2016 Article en page(s) : 16-23 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
INTERNATIONAL ; ETATS-UNIS ; CHINE ; ROYAUME-UNI ; AUSTRALIE ; PAYS-BAS
MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; INTERNET ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; MEDICAMENTS ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; VENTE ; DROGUES DE SYNTHESE
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Résumé : Background: To date monitoring of cryptomarkets operating on the dark net has largely focused on market size and substance availability. Less is known of country specific differences in these indicators and how they may corroborate population prevalence estimates for substance use in different countries.
Methods: All substance listings from the cryptomarket Agora were recorded over seven time points throughout February and March 2015. Agora was chosen due to its size as the second largest cryptomarket operating and the level of detail of information provided in individual substance listings. Data were collated and the number of unique sellers selling each substance by country of origin was analysed.
Results: An average of 14,456.7 substance listings were identified across sampled days from 868.7 unique sellers. The top five countries by number of listings were the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, China and the Netherlands, collectively accounting for 61.8% of all identified listings and 68% of all unique sellers. Australia was over represented in terms of sellers per capita, while China was over represented in new psychoactive substance (NPS) listings. When examined by number of listings per seller, the Netherlands and China stood out as particularly large, likely due to these countries' role in the local production of various illicit and new psychoactive substances.
Conclusions: Numbers of sellers by country of origin appear to be influenced by several factors. Australia's overrepresentation in sellers per capita may indicate its relative geographical isolation and the potential for profit margins from selling online, while China's overrepresentation in NPS listings may reflect domestic production of these substances. Continued monitoring will provide enhanced understanding of the increasingly complex and globalised nature of illicit drug markets.
Domaine : Autres substances / Other substances ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Affiliation : National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
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