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Auteur J. POWLES
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Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe / J. REHM
Titre : Alcohol accounts for a high proportion of premature mortality in central and eastern Europe Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. REHM ; U. SULKOWSKA ; M. MANCZUK ; P. BOFFETTA ; J. POWLES ; S. POPOVA ; W. ZATONSKI Année de publication : 2007 Importance : 458-467 Note générale : International Journal of Epidemiology, 2007, 36, (2), 458-467
Commentary: "The role of alcohol in mortality differences between European countries", Int J Epidemiol 2007;36(2):468-469, Vågerö D.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; CAUSE DE DECES ; MORTALITE ; COMPARAISON ; SEXE
EUROPE ; EUROPE DE L'EST
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé :
BACKGROUND: There is a west-east mortality gradient in Europe, more pronounced in men. The objective of this article was to quantify the contribution of alcohol use to the gap in premature adult mortality between three old (France, Sweden and United Kingdom) and four new (Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Poland) European Union (EU) member states for the year 2002. Russia was added as an external comparator. METHODS: Exposure data were taken from surveys and per capita consumption records from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Alcohol Database. Mortality data were taken from the WHO databank. The risk relationships were taken from published meta-analyses and from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment project. Alcohol exposure and relative risk information was combined to derive alcohol-attributable fractions for relevant causes of premature mortality. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was responsible for 14.6% of all premature adult mortality in the eight countries, 17.3% in men and 8.0% in women. This proportion was clearly higher in the new EU member states and Russia compared with the comparison countries from the old EU. For men, Russia with 29.0 alcohol-attributable premature deaths per 10,000 population had a more than 10-fold higher rate compared with Sweden (2.7 deaths/10,000). For women, the ratio between Hungary (5.0 alcohol-attributable deaths/10,000) and Russia (4.7 deaths/10,000) compared with Sweden (0.5 deaths/10,000) was almost as high, but the rates were much lower. The Czech Republic and Poland showed proportionally less alcohol-attributable premature mortality than the other new EU member states or Russia for both genders, which, however, was still higher than in any of the old EU member states. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is a strong contributor to the health gap between western and central and eastern Europe, with both average volume of consumption and patterns of drinking contributing to burden of disease and injury. Alcohol also contributes substantially to male-female differences in mortality and life expectancy. However, there are feasible and cost-effective measures to reduce alcohol-related burden that should be implemented in central and eastern Europe. (Author' s abstract)
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 56 Affiliation : Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A03602 Permalink : A comparison of the alcohol-attributable mortality in four European countries / A. BRITTON in European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.18 n°7 (2003)
Titre : A comparison of the alcohol-attributable mortality in four European countries Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. BRITTON ; E. NOLTE ; I. R. WHITE ; M. GRONBAEK ; J. POWLES ; F. CAVALLO ; K. McPHERSON Année de publication : 2003 Article en page(s) : 643-651 Présentation : graph. ; tabl. Note générale : European Journal of Epidemiology, 2003, 18, (7), 643-651 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; MORTALITE ; APPAREIL CARDIOVASCULAIRE ; PATHOLOGIE ORGANIQUE ; COMPARAISON ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ; CONDUITE DE VEHICULE ; JEUNE ; TYPE D'USAGE
EUROPE ; ALLEMAGNE ; ITALIE ; ROYAUME-UNI ; DANEMARK
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé :
Background: Deaths due to alcohol consumption are an important component of all-cause mortality, particularly premature mortality. However, there are considerable regional variations, the reasons for which are unclear. Methods: Estimates were made as reliably as possibly using vital statistics and best estimates of risk of the alcohol-attributable mortality, by age, sex and cause for four European countries (England and Wales, Germany, Denmark and Italy). Twenty-seven alcohol-related conditions were considered including the possible cardio-protective effects of alcohol. Results: It was estimated that there are approximately 2% fewer deaths annually in England and Wales than would be expected in a non-drinking population and 0.3% fewer deaths among East German females. In West Germany, Denmark, Italy and among East German males there are more deaths caused by alcohol than are prevented (between 0.7 and 2.6% of all deaths). The highest age-specific proportion of alcohol-attributable deaths is found in East Germany where around 30% of deaths among males aged 25-44 years are due to drinking. Among young men in all four countries the largest contributor to alcohol-related deaths is road traffic accidents involving alcohol. Conclusions: Possible explanations for the variation in alcohol-attributable deaths between countries include different underlying heart disease rates, different patterns of alcohol consumption and beverage preferences, and different use of mortality classification. Differences in the reported alcohol consumption levels explain little of the variation in alcohol-attributable deaths. Estimating alcohol-attributable mortality by age and sex across countries may be a useful indicator for developing alcohol strategies and exploring ways of preventing premature mortality.
Note de contenu : graph. ; tabl. Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 26 Affiliation : Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom. Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in European Journal of Epidemiology > Vol.18 n°7 (2003) . - 643-651[article]Lung cancer mortality at ages 35-54 in the European Union: ecological study of evolving tobacco epidemics / J. DIDKOWSKA
Titre : Lung cancer mortality at ages 35-54 in the European Union: ecological study of evolving tobacco epidemics Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. DIDKOWSKA ; M. MANCZUK ; A. McNEILL ; J. POWLES ; W. ZATONSKI Année de publication : 2005 Importance : 189-191 Présentation : graph. Note générale : British Medical Journal, 2005, 331, (7510), 189-191
Comment p.191-192 : "Making the transition to action", Kralikova E., et al.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
TABAC ; MORTALITE ; AGE ; ADULTE ; EVOLUTION ; CANCER ; POUMON ; SEXE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Epidemiological analyses indicate that disease attributable to smoking is a leading contributor to the large gap in premature mortality between the 15 countries that formerly made up the European Union and the new member states from central and eastern Europe. However, the prevalence of smoking in most countries has not been measured in a sufficiently consistent way, or over a long enough period, to be used to predict trends in diseases caused by smoking. What is already known on this topic: Lung cancer mortality among men is higher in central and eastern Europe than in the 15 original (western) states of the European Union. For each sex, lung cancer rates are distinctly higher in Hungary than elsewhere. What this study adds: Lung cancer mortality is now falling in middle aged men in all new EU states in central and eastern Europe but is still rising among women in most EU countries. (Extract of the publication) Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 5 Affiliation : Cancer Centre-Institute of Oncology, Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Div., Warsaw, Poland Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A02210 Permalink : Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease ; Interpreting the global burden of disease / EZZATI M.
Titre : Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease ; Interpreting the global burden of disease Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : EZZATI M. ; A. D. LOPEZ ; A. RODGERS ; S. VANDER HOORN ; C. J. L. MURRAY ; Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group ; J. POWLES ; N. DAY Année de publication : 2002 Importance : 1347-1360 Présentation : graph. Note générale : Lancet (The), 2002, 360, (9343), 1347-1360 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
INTERNATIONAL ; AFRIQUE ; AMERIQUE ; EUROPE ; ASIE ; OCEANIE
MORBIDITE ; MORTALITE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; CHOLESTEROL ; OBESITE ; ALIMENTATION ; CONTRACEPTION ; TABAC ; ALCOOL ; PSYCHOTROPES ; HYGIENE ; INJECTION ; ABUS SEXUEL ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ANALYTIQUE ; MODELE STATISTIQUE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : BACKGROUND: Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been in the context of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. Our aim was to estimate the contributions of selected major risk factors to global and regional burden of disease in a unified framework. METHODS: For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups undertook a comprehensive review of published work and other sources--eg, government reports and international databases--to obtain data on the prevalence of risk factor exposure and hazard size for 14 epidemiological regions of the world. Population attributable fractions were estimated by applying the potential impact fraction relation, and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the global burden of disease (GBD) database. FINDINGS: Childhood and maternal underweight (138 million disability adjusted life years [DALY], 9.5%), unsafe sex (92 million DALY, 6.3%), high blood pressure (64 million DALY, 4.4%), tobacco (59 million DALY, 4.1%), and alcohol (58 million DALY, 4.0%) were the leading causes of global burden of disease. In the poorest regions of the world, childhood and maternal underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene, indoor smoke from solid fuels, and various micronutrient deficiencies were major contributors to loss of healthy life. In both developing and developed regions, alcohol, tobacco, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol were major causes of disease burden. INTERPRETATION: Substantial proportions of global disease burden are attributable to these major risks, to an extent greater than previously estimated. Developing countries suffer most or all of the burden due to many of the leading risks. Strategies that target these known risks can provide substantial and underestimated public-health gains. (Review' s abstract) Domaine : Plusieurs produits / Several products Refs biblio. : 56 Affiliation : Risk, Resources and Environmental Management Division, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC
Etats-Unis. United States.
Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A01614 Permalink : The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic differentials in mortality: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, Australia / M. SIAHPUSH ; D. ENGLISH ; J. POWLES in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol.60, n°12 (2006)
Titre : The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic differentials in mortality: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, Australia Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. SIAHPUSH ; D. ENGLISH ; J. POWLES Année de publication : 2006 Article en page(s) : 1077-1079 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ENQUETE ; MILIEU SOCIOCULTUREL ; MORTALITE ; SEXE MASCULIN ; TABAC ; COHORTE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of smoking to the inverse association of mortality with years of formal education in men in Australia.
DESIGN: Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study that included 17 049 men in Melbourne recruited from 1990 to 1994, most of whom were aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline. The outcome measured was all-cause mortality. The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic status differentials was estimated by including smoking as a variable in a Cox's proportional hazards model that also included education and other potential confounding variables.
RESULTS: In men, the association between education and mortality was attenuated after adjustment for smoking, and the aetiological fraction for low levels of education was reduced from 16.5% to 10.6%.
CONCLUSIONS: In men, smoking contributes substantially to socioeconomic differentials in mortality. Effective policies and interventions that target smoking among socially disadvantaged groups may substantially reduce socioeconomic differentials in health.
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 10 Affiliation : Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, The Cancer Council Victoria, 1 Rathdown St, Carlton 3053, Melbourne
Lien : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2465498/?tool=pubmed Permalink :
in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health > Vol.60, n°12 (2006) . - 1077-1079[article]