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Auteur S. BELL
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Pyrolysis of drugs of abuse: a comprehensive review / S. BELL ; C. NIDA in Drug Testing and Analysis, Vol.7, n°5-6 (May-June 2015)
Titre : Pyrolysis of drugs of abuse: a comprehensive review Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. BELL ; C. NIDA Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 445-456 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
TOXICOLOGIE ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; FUMER ; INHALATION ; COMBUSTION ; HEROINE ; PHENCYCLIDINE ; MECANISME D'ACTION ; COCAINE ; ANESTHESIQUES ; AMPHETAMINES ; CANNABINOIDES ; CATHINONE ; BIOCHIMIE
Discipline : PRO Produits, mode d'action, méthode de dépistage / Substances, action mode, screening methods Résumé : This review summarizes the literature to date relating to pyrolysis and heated vapour ingestion of drugs of abuse. In this context, heating is referred to as smoking or pyrolysis, but these are generic descriptors that encompass numerous methods of vapour generation and inhalation. Depending on the amount of drug used, diluents and contaminants present, heating conditions, and the oxidative/reductive environment, many thermal decomposition products can be formed. In addition to the recognized hazard of rapid onset of pharmacological effects of the parent drug, thermal decomposition products may be pharmacologically active as well as acutely/chronically toxic. For example, several published reports have linked heroin smoking to a form of brain encephalopathy and to the development of movement disorders. Early qualitative studies focusing on the thermal decomposition of drugs have evolved into more complex investigations employing mass spectral identification, confirmation, and elucidation of formation mechanism. In most cases, thermal decomposition begins with cleavage of the weakest bond (often C-N) to generate free radicals that then form the most stable sterically favoured products. Several reports of rearrangements at higher temperatures have been identified and hint at an underlying complexity that arises from the variety of smoking methods and conditions. Given that many designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoids are ingested primarily through smoking, this issue has taken on new importance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 138 Affiliation : C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry/Department of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA Cote : Abonnement Permalink :
in Drug Testing and Analysis > Vol.7, n°5-6 (May-June 2015) . - 445-456[article]The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study / C. S. KNOTT ; S. BELL ; A. BRITTON in Addiction, Vol.113, n°1 (January 2018)
Titre : The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : C. S. KNOTT ; S. BELL ; A. BRITTON Année de publication : 2018 Article en page(s) : 34-43 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; ETUDE LONGITUDINALE ; TRAJECTOIRE ; CONSOMMATION ; ADULTE ; TYPE D'USAGE ; MODELE STATISTIQUE ; SEXE ; AGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background and aims: Studies that report the relationship between alcohol consumption and disease risk have predominantly operationalized drinking according to a single baseline measure. The resulting assumption of longitudinal stability may be simplistic and complicate interpretation of risk estimates. This study aims to describe changes to the volume of consumption during the adult life-course according to baseline categories of drinking.
Design: A prospective observational study.
Setting: United Kingdom. Participants A cohort of British civil servants totalling 6838 men and 3372 women aged 34-55 years at baseline, followed for a mean 19.1 (standard deviation = 9.5) years.
Measurements: The volume of weekly alcohol consumption was estimated from data concerning the frequency and number of drinks consumed. Baseline categories were defined: non-current drinkers, infrequent drinkers, 0.1-50.0 g/week, 50.1-100.0 g/week, 100.1-150.0 g/week, 150.1-250.0 g/week and >250.0 g/week. For women, the highest category was defined as > 100.0 g/week. Baseline frequency was derived as 'daily or almost daily' and 'not daily or almost daily'. Trajectories were estimated within baseline categories using growth curve models.
Findings: Trajectories differed between men and women, but were relatively stable within light-to-moderate categories of baseline consumption. Drinking was least stable within the highest categories of baseline consumption (men: > 250.0 g/week; women: > 100.0 g/week), declining by 47.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.7, 53.2] and 16.8 g/week (95% CI = 12.6, 21.0), respectively, per 10-year increase in age. These declines were not a consequence of sudden transitions to complete abstention. Rates of decline appear greatest in older age, with trajectories converging toward moderate volumes.
Conclusion: Among UK civil servants, consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age. This shift does not appear to be driven by transitions to non-drinking. Cohorts of older people may be at particular risk of misclassifying former heavy drinkers as moderate consumers of alcohol.
Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 41 Affiliation : Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.13949 Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.113, n°1 (January 2018) . - 34-43[article]