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Auteur N. D. FREEDMAN
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50-Year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States / M. J. THUN ; B. D. CARTER ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; R. PRENTICE ; A. LOPEZ ; P. HARTGE ; S. M. GAPSTUR in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.368, n°4 (January 24, 2013)
Titre : 50-Year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. J. THUN ; B. D. CARTER ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; R. PRENTICE ; A. LOPEZ ; P. HARTGE ; S. M. GAPSTUR Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 351-364 Note générale : Editorial: New evidence that cigarette smoking remains the most important health hazard. Schroeder S.A., p. 389-390.
Correspondence: Smoking-Related Mortality in the United States. Lippi G., Mattiuzzi C., Cerimele J.M., Halperin A.C., Blum A., Thun M.J., Lopez A.D., Hartge P., Schroeder S., NEJM 2013;368(18), p. 1752-1754.
Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; MORTALITE ; EVOLUTION ; COHORTE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; CAUSE DE DECES ; SEXE ; AGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background: The disease risks from cigarette smoking increased in the United States over most of the 20th century, first among male smokers and later among female smokers. Whether these risks have continued to increase during the past 20 years is unclear. Methods: We measured temporal trends in mortality across three time periods (1959-1965, 1982-1988, and 2000-2010), comparing absolute and relative risks according to sex and self-reported smoking status in two historical cohort studies and in five pooled contemporary cohort studies, among participants who became 55 years of age or older during follow-up.
Results: For women who were current smokers, as compared with women who had never smoked, the relative risks of death from lung cancer were 2.73, 12.65, and 25.66 in the 1960s, 1980s, and contemporary cohorts, respectively; corresponding relative risks for male current smokers, as compared with men who had never smoked, were 12.22, 23.81, and 24.97. In the contemporary cohorts, male and female current smokers also had similar relative risks for death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (25.61 for men and 22.35 for women), ischemic heart disease (2.50 for men and 2.86 for women), any type of stroke (1.92 for men and 2.10 for women), and all causes combined (2.80 for men and 2.76 for women). Mortality from COPD among male smokers continued to increase in the contemporary cohorts in nearly all the age groups represented in the study and within each stratum of duration and intensity of smoking. Among men 55 to 74 years of age and women 60 to 74 years of age, all-cause mortality was at least three times as high among current smokers as among those who had never smoked. Smoking cessation at any age dramatically reduced death rates.
Conclusions: The risk of death from cigarette smoking continues to increase among women and the increased risks are now nearly identical for men and women, as compared with persons who have never smoked. Among men, the risks associated with smoking have plateaued at the high levels seen in the 1980s, except for a continuing, unexplained increase in mortality from COPD.
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 36 Affiliation : Department of Epidemiology, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1211127 Permalink :
in New England Journal of Medicine > Vol.368, n°4 (January 24, 2013) . - 351-364[article]Deaths due to cigarette smoking for 12 smoking-related cancers in the United States / R. L. SIEGEL ; E. J. JACOBS ; C. C. NEWTON ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; R. L. PRENTICE ; A. JEMAL in JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol.175, n°9 (Septembre 2015)
Titre : Deaths due to cigarette smoking for 12 smoking-related cancers in the United States Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : R. L. SIEGEL ; E. J. JACOBS ; C. C. NEWTON ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; R. L. PRENTICE ; A. JEMAL Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 1574-1576 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; MORTALITE ; CANCER
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : The 2014 US Surgeon General's Report provided the estimated annual number of smoking-attributable deaths during 2005 to 2009 from cancer overall and lung cancer specifically but not separately for the 11 other cancers found to be caused by smoking. Current estimates of smoking-attributable mortality for specific cancer sites are based on data from 2000 to 2004. Updated estimates are needed because smoking patterns and the magnitude of the association between smoking and cancer death have changed in the past decade. From 2000 to 2012, smoking prevalence decreased from 23.2% to 18.1%. In contrast to this favorable trend, recently published data revealed that the risk of cancer death among smokers can increase over time. Therefore, we estimated the number and proportion of deaths in the United States in 2011 attributable to cigarette smoking for 12 cancers caused by smoking. [Extract] Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 6 Affiliation : Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, Intramural Research Department, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Permalink :
in JAMA Internal Medicine > Vol.175, n°9 (Septembre 2015) . - 1574-1576[article]Smoking and mortality - Beyond established causes / B. D. CARTER ; C. C. ABNET ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; P. HARTGE ; C. E. LEWIS ; J. K. OCKENE ; R. L. PRENTICE ; F. E. SPEIZER ; M. J. THUN ; E. J. JACOBS in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.372, n°7 (February 12, 2015)
Titre : Smoking and mortality - Beyond established causes Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : B. D. CARTER ; C. C. ABNET ; D. FESKANICH ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; P. HARTGE ; C. E. LEWIS ; J. K. OCKENE ; R. L. PRENTICE ; F. E. SPEIZER ; M. J. THUN ; E. J. JACOBS Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 631-640 Note générale : Correspondence: Sareen J., Zaborniak K., Green M. Smoking and mortality - Beyond established causes. New England Journal of Medicine, 2015; 372(22): p. 2168-2170. Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
COHORTE ; TABAC ; MORTALITE ; CAUSE DE DECES ; PATHOLOGIE ORGANIQUE ; CANCER ; REIN ; CIRRHOSE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background: Mortality among current smokers is 2 to 3 times as high as that among persons who never smoked. Most of this excess mortality is believed to be explained by 21 common diseases that have been formally established as caused by cigarette smoking and are included in official estimates of smoking-attributable mortality in the United States. However, if smoking causes additional diseases, these official estimates may significantly underestimate the number of deaths attributable to smoking.
Methods: We pooled data from five contemporary U.S. cohort studies including 421,378 men and 532,651 women 55 years of age or older. Participants were followed from 2000 through 2011, and relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with the use of Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age, race, educational level, daily alcohol consumption, and cohort.
Results: During the follow-up period, there were 181,377 deaths, including 16,475 among current smokers. Overall, approximately 17% of the excess mortality among current smokers was due to associations with causes that are not currently established as attributable to smoking. These included associations between current smoking and deaths from renal failure (relative risk, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 2.3), intestinal ischemia (relative risk, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.1), hypertensive heart disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9 to 3.0), infections (relative risk, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.0 to 2.7), various respiratory diseases (relative risk, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 2.4), breast cancer (relative risk, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.5), and prostate cancer (relative risk, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.7). Among former smokers, the relative risk for each of these outcomes declined as the number of years since quitting increased.
Conclusions: A substantial portion of the excess mortality among current smokers between 2000 and 2011 was due to associations with diseases that have not been formally established as caused by smoking. These associations should be investigated further and, when appropriate, taken into account when the mortality burden of smoking is investigated. (Funded by the American Cancer Society.)
Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Refs biblio. : 37 Affiliation : American Cancer Society National Home Office, Atlanta, GA, USA URL : Correspondence: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1503675 Permalink :
in New England Journal of Medicine > Vol.372, n°7 (February 12, 2015) . - 631-640[article]Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: an analysis of death certificate data / M. S. SHIELS ; P. CHERNYAVSKIY ; W. F. ANDERSON ; A. F. BEST ; E. A. HAOZOUS ; P. HARTGE ; P. S. ROSENBERG ; D. THOMAS ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; A. B. DE GONZALEZ in Lancet (The), Vol.389, n°10073 (March 11, 2017)
Titre : Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: an analysis of death certificate data Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. S. SHIELS ; P. CHERNYAVSKIY ; W. F. ANDERSON ; A. F. BEST ; E. A. HAOZOUS ; P. HARTGE ; P. S. ROSENBERG ; D. THOMAS ; N. D. FREEDMAN ; A. B. DE GONZALEZ Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 1043-1054 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
MORTALITE ; EVOLUTION ; ETHNIE ; SEXE ; CAUSE DE DECES ; INTOXICATION ; SUICIDE ; AGE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE DESCRIPTIVE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Résumé : Background: Reduction of premature mortality is a UN Sustainable Development Goal. Unlike other high-income countries, age-adjusted mortality in the USA plateaued in 2010 and increased slightly in 2015, possibly because of rising premature mortality. We aimed to analyse trends in mortality in the USA between 1999 and 2014 in people aged 25-64 years by age group, sex, and race and ethnicity, and to identify specific causes of death underlying the temporal trends.
Methods: For this analysis, we used cause-of-death and demographic data from death certificates from the US National Center for Health Statistics, and population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We estimated annual percentage changes in mortality using age-period-cohort models. Age-standardised excess deaths were estimated for 2000 to 2014 as observed deaths minus expected deaths (estimated from 1999 mortality rates).
Findings: Between 1999 and 2014, premature mortality increased in white individuals and in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Increases were highest in women and those aged 25-30 years. Among 30-year-olds, annual mortality increases were 2.3% (95% CI 2.1-2.4) for white women, 0.6% (0.5-0.7) for white men, and 4.3% (3.5-5.0) and 1.9% (1.3-2.5), respectively, for American Indian and Alaska Native women and men. These increases were mainly attributable to accidental deaths (primarily drug poisonings), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and suicide. Among individuals aged 25-49 years, an estimated 111 000 excess premature deaths occurred in white individuals and 6600 in American Indians and Alaska Natives during 2000-14. By contrast, premature mortality decreased substantially across all age groups in Hispanic individuals (up to 3.2% per year), black individuals (up to 3.9% per year), and Asians and Pacific Islanders (up to 2.6% per year), mainly because of declines in HIV, cancer, and heart disease deaths, resulting in an estimated 112 000 fewer deaths in Hispanic individuals, 311 000 fewer deaths in black individuals, and 34 000 fewer deaths in Asians and Pacific Islanders aged 25-64 years. During 2011-14, American Indians and Alaska Natives had the highest premature mortality, followed by black individuals.
Interpretation: Important public health successes, including HIV treatment and smoking cessation, have contributed to declining premature mortality in Hispanic individuals, black individuals, and Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, this progress has largely been negated in young and middle-aged (25-49 years) white individuals, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, primarily because of potentially avoidable causes such as drug poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. The magnitude of annual mortality increases in the USA is extremely unusual in high-income countries, and a rapid public health response is needed to avert further premature deaths.
Funding: US National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.
Refs biblio. : 46 Affiliation : Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA URL : http://www.lemonde.fr/ameriques/article/2017/02/15/une-etude-revele-une-hausse-inquietante-du-taux-de-mortalite-chez-les-jeunes-americains_5080230_322[...] Permalink :
in Lancet (The) > Vol.389, n°10073 (March 11, 2017) . - 1043-1054[article]