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Auteur E. PETERS
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Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations / J. E. HENNINGFIELD ; D. K. HATSUKAMI ; M. ZELLER ; E. PETERS in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.116, n°1-3 (July 2011)
Titre : Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations : (Conférence sur le potentiel addictif et l'attractivité des produits du tabac : conclusions et recommendations) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. E. HENNINGFIELD ; D. K. HATSUKAMI ; M. ZELLER ; E. PETERS Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : 1-7 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
INDUSTRIE DU TABAC ; MARKETING ; METHODE ; PREVENTION ; TABAC ; POTENTIEL ADDICTIF
Discipline : PRE Prévention / Prevention Résumé : The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Sous-type de document : Compte rendu & Table ronde / Minutes & Round-table conference Refs biblio. : 59 Affiliation : Pinney Associates, 3 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 1400, Bethesda, MD 20813,
Etats-Unis. United States.
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.116, n°1-3 (July 2011) . - 1-7[article]Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland / J. STONE ; N. K. MARTIN ; M. HICKMAN ; S. J. HUTCHINSON ; E. ASPINALL ; A. TAYLOR ; A. MUNRO ; K. DUNLEAVY ; E. PETERS ; P. BRAMLEY ; P. C. HAYES ; D. J. GOLDBERG ; P. VICKERMAN in Addiction, Vol.112, n°7 (July 2017)
Titre : Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. STONE ; N. K. MARTIN ; M. HICKMAN ; S. J. HUTCHINSON ; E. ASPINALL ; A. TAYLOR ; A. MUNRO ; K. DUNLEAVY ; E. PETERS ; P. BRAMLEY ; P. C. HAYES ; D. J. GOLDBERG ; P. VICKERMAN Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 1302-1314 Langues : Anglais (eng) Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ECOSSE ; ROYAUME-UNI
HEPATITE ; PRISON ; INCARCERATION ; TRAITEMENT DE MAINTENANCE ; CONTAMINATION ; USAGER ; INJECTION ; MODELE STATISTIQUE
Discipline : MAL Maladies infectieuses / Infectious diseases Résumé : Background and Aims: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released ( Design: Dynamic mathematical modelling of incarceration and HCV transmission, using approximate Bayesian computation for model calibration.
Setting: Scotland, UK.
Participants: A simulated population of PWID.
Measurements: Population-attributable fraction (PAF) of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID. Decrease in HCV incidence and chronic prevalence due to current levels of prison opiate substitution therapy (OST; 57% coverage) and HCV treatment, as well as scaling-up DAAs in prison and/or preventing the elevated risk associated with prison release.
Findings: Incarceration contributes 27.7% [PAF; 95% credible interval (CrI) -3.1 to 51.1%] of HCV transmission among PWID in Scotland. During the next 15 years, current HCV treatment rates (10.4/6.8 per 1000 incarcerated/community PWID annually), with existing prison OST, could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence among all PWID by a relative 10.7% (95% CrI = 8.4-13.3%) and 9.7% (95% CrI = 7.7-12.1%), respectively. Conversely, without prison OST, HCV incidence and chronic prevalence would decrease by 3.1% (95% CrI = -28.5 to 18.0%) and 4.7% (95% CrI = -11.3 to 14.5%). Additionally, preventing the heightened risk among recently released PWID could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence by 45.0% (95% CrI = 19.7-57.5%) and 33.3% (95% CrI = 15.6-43.6%) or scaling-up prison HCV treatments to 80% of chronic PWID prison entrants with sufficient sentences (>16 weeks) could reduce incidence and prevalence by 45.6% (95% CrI = 38.0-51.3%) and 45.5% (95% CrI = 39.3-51.0%), respectively.
Conclusions: Incarceration and the elevated transmission risk following prison release can contribute significantly to hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs. Scaling-up hepatitis C virus treatment in prison can provide important prevention benefits.
Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Refs biblio. : 47 Affiliation : School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Cote : Abonnement Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.13783 Permalink :
in Addiction > Vol.112, n°7 (July 2017) . - 1302-1314[article]