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Further insights into aspects of the EU illicit drugs market / F. TRAUTMANN ; B. KILMER ; P. TURNBULL
Titre : Further insights into aspects of the EU illicit drugs market Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : F. TRAUTMANN ; B. KILMER ; P. TURNBULL Année de publication : 2013 Editeur : Bruxelles : Commission européenne, Direction générale justice et affaires intérieures, Coordination de la lutte anti-drogue Autre Editeur : Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union Importance : 503 p. Présentation : ann., tabl., graph. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-92-79-29287-3 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
UNION EUROPEENNE ; EUROPE ; PAYS-BAS ; BULGARIE ; REPUBLIQUE TCHEQUE ; ITALIE ; SUEDE ; PORTUGAL ; ROYAUME-UNI
MARCHE DE LA DROGUE ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; CANNABIS ; PRODUCTION ; COUT ; COFFEE SHOP ; CONSOMMATION ; HEROINE ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS ; TRAITEMENT DE MAINTENANCE ; COCAINE ; CONTREBANDE
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Highlights [Extracts]:
* Our estimates for the EU cannabis market suggest a range of approximately €7 billion to €10 billion for 2010. These estimates are likely low as they do not account for the "consumption gap" that is created when data from general population surveys are used to measure substance use. Prior estimates of the EU cannabis market ranged from €15-35 billion.
* This difference arises from two key findings of this study:
- Cannabis users who use more frequently also smoke more each time they use. This is true across the seven countries studied.
- Occasional users are more likely to share than are frequent users; that still further reduces the amount they consume at each session.
- This picture also seems to apply to amphetamine, ecstasy and cocaine use.
* Our study also shows that intensive users are a small to modest fraction of cannabis users (between 5% and 25%), but are responsible for the bulk (between 55% and 77%) of the total amount of cannabis annually consumed in all countries. Infrequent users of cannabis, using less than once per month, form the largest group of past year cannabis users but account for 2 percent or less of the quantity consumed.
* Another important finding is that users stating that they used in the past month and specifying the quantity used in the past month do not consume (the same amounts) each month. Multiplying their consumption by twelve to obtain an annual estimate may result in an overestimation. There are also other factors which might have led to earlier overestimations of cannabis consumption. One might be overstating the share of 'high consumption users' among past year. Finally, earlier studies have used higher estimates of amounts of cannabis used per unit compared to those we found in our study.
* Enforcing laws against the production and distribution of cannabis dramatically inflate their costs. The increase is largely driven by producers and traffickers requiring compensation for their risk of arrest, incarceration, seizure, and violent injury as well as by the inefficiencies associated with having to operate covertly.
* Drug markets to some extent follow the same laws of economics of licit markets, as attested by our Delphi survey of European drug experts about key trends of the illicit drugs market and policy responses in the EU. The majority of experts stress the analogy of the illicit drugs market with other (licit) markets. For example, it is important to maintain working relations with suppliers and employees. A study of 33 failed transactions in the Dutch cocaine smuggling trade found that the smuggler mostly tried to understand what went wrong and work out a reasonable way of arranging compensation. However about 40% did involve either violence or its threat; how that affects behaviour within the market remains to be worked out.
Note de contenu : CONTENTS:
Key findings and summaries
* Part I - Drugs market: an assessment from the demand side:
Report 1 - Cannabis market: user types, availability and consumption estimates
Report 2 - Amphetamine, ecstasy and cocaine: typology of users, availability and consumption estimates
Report 3 - Heroin market: use characteristics, size of the market and impact of OST on the heroin market
Report 4 - Estimating the size of the EU cannabis market
* Part II - Drugs market: selected features:
Report 1 - Opioid consumption and substitution treatment in Finland and Sweden: a similar path with different outcomes?
Report 2 - Managing potential conflict in illegal markets: an exploratory study of cocaine smuggling in the Netherlands
Report 3 - 'Polymorphous criminal networks': considering criminal groups' engagement across markets
Report 4 - Insights about cannabis production and distribution costs in the EU
* Part III - Drug policy issues:
Report 1 - Impact of decriminalisation of personal possession offences in Portugal
Report 2 - Impact of changes in the Netherlands coffee shop policies on local markets: politics, policies, confusion and chaos: the problems associated with implementing the Dutch weed pass
Report 3 - Exploring trends in the illicit drugs market and drug policy responses in the EU
Affiliation : Trimbos Institute ; RAND ; ICPR Lien : http://ec.europa.eu/justice/anti-drugs/files/eu_market_full.pdf URL : Summary: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/anti-drugs/files/eu_market_summary_en.pdf Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=74720Being young in Europe today / Eurostat
Titre : Being young in Europe today Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : Eurostat Mention d'édition : 2015 edition Année de publication : 2015 Editeur : Luxembourg : Eurostat Autre Editeur : Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union Collection : Statistical books Importance : 214 p. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-92-79-43243-9 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
JEUNE ; DEMOGRAPHIE ; ENFANT ; SANTE ; EDUCATION ; EMPLOI ; STYLE DE VIE ; COMMUNICATION ; MORTALITE ; ALCOOL ; TABAC ; PRODUIT ILLICITE
Discipline : SAN Santé publique / Public health Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol ; Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : Being young in Europe today' presents some of Eurostat's most interesting data on children and young people in the European Union. It gives an insight into the past, current and future situation of our youngest fellow citizens, ranging from attending school and participating in sport and leisure activities, to leaving the parental home and entering the professional life. Data are presented for the European Union and its Member States as well as for the EFTA countries.
Being young in Europe today provides an overview of the wealth of information that is available on Eurostat's website and within its online databases.
Lien : http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-statistical-books/-/KS-05-14-031 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=75662How can contingency management support treatment for substance use disorders? A systematic review / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)
Titre : How can contingency management support treatment for substance use disorders? A systematic review Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal) Année de publication : 2016 Editeur : Lisbon : OEDT / EMCDDA Autre Editeur : Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union Collection : EMCDDA Papers, ISSN 2315-1463 Importance : 46 p. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-92-9168-935-4 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
TRAITEMENT ; METHODE ; EFFICACITE ; REDUCTION DE CONSOMMATION ; PRODUIT ILLICITE ; INTERVENTION ; THERAPIE COMPORTEMENTALE ; COUT ; EVALUATION ; OPIACES ; COCAINE ; METHAMPHETAMINE
Discipline : TRA Traitement et prise en charge / Treatment and care Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Contingency management (CM) is a general behavioural intervention technique used in the treatment of drug dependence to systematically arrange consequences and it is designed to weaken drug use and strengthen abstinence.
The main elements of CM interventions are behavioural reinforcers and monitoring, which aim to promote social reintegration by sustaining compliance, abstinence and/or attendance at work.
We performed a systematic review of studies on the effectiveness of CM alongside pharmacological treatment of dependence.
We included 38 studies on opioid users (n = 20), cocaine users in methadone therapy (n = 14), cocaine users (n = 3) and methamphetamine users (n = 1). We found that CM was useful for reducing drug use among cocaine users and opioid users in substitution treatment for reducing and abstaining from cocaine use. In opioid detoxification, CM increased retention in treatment and improved abstinence. In terms of the cost-effectiveness of CM, the evidence is not strong enough to recommend its systematic implementation.
We included three studies on the economic analysis with evidence for cost-effectiveness analysis: one review (based upon nine published studies) and two additional studies. The review confirms that evidence for cost-effectiveness has limited generalisability beyond original research.
Our limited analysis shows that CM is a feasible and promising adjunct to treatment interventions for drug users.
Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Lien : http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/papers/contingency-management-systemati [...] URL : http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2016/fs7/emcdda-publishes-paper-on-contingency-management Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=77796
EMCDDA_Contingency-management_2016.pdfAdobe Acrobat PDF
Titre : Cannabis legislation in Europe: an overview Type de document : Rapport Auteurs : OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal) Année de publication : 2017 Editeur : Lisbon : OEDT / EMCDDA Autre Editeur : Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union Collection : Ad hoc publication Importance : 32 p. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-92-9497-106-7 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
EUROPE ; UNION EUROPEENNE
CANNABIS ; LEGISLATION ; POSSESSION DE DROGUE ; SANCTION PENALE ; CONTROLE DES STUPEFIANTS ; USAGE THERAPEUTIQUE ; ILS ; COMPARAISON ; DECRIMINALISATION ; CULTURE PRIVEE ; COFFEE SHOP ; RESEAU SOCIAL ; EVOLUTION ; LEGALISATION
Discipline : LOI Loi et son application / Law enforcement Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : At a time of increased debate on the laws controlling the use of cannabis in the European Union, this report answers some of the questions most often asked about cannabis legislation. Using a question and answer format, basic definitions and the obligations of countries under international law are set out in a section on 'What is cannabis and what are countries' obligations to control it?' Two following sections examine the links and disparities between the content of the laws and their guidelines on the one hand and the actual implementation of the laws on the other. The final question and answer section considers whether changes in law have affected cannabis use and how much public support for legal change exists, as it looks at the future direction of cannabis legislation in Europe. Note de contenu : CONTENTS:
Part 1: What is cannabis and what are countries' obligations to control it?
Part 2: What do the laws and associated guidelines say?
Part 3: What happens to cannabis offenders in practice?
Part 4: Where is cannabis legislation going?
Cote : OEDT-2.35 Lien : http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/adhoc/cannabis-legislation-europe Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=78640
EMCDDA_Cannabis-legislation-Europe_2017.pdfAdobe Acrobat PDF
Titre : The Reitox network: frequently asked questions Type de document : Brochure Auteurs : OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal) Année de publication : 2012 Editeur : Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union Autre Editeur : Lisbon : OEDT / EMCDDA Importance : 12 p. ISBN/ISSN/EAN : 978-92-9168-488-5 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
SURVEILLANCE EPIDEMIOLOGIQUE ; INFORMATION
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : This information brochure has been produced by the EMCDDA to provide answers to the most commonly asked questions on the Reitox network of national focal points and more broadly on national drugs observatories. Compiled over several years, it is a reference tool for both EU Member States and countries further afield on the network, its members, its role and development. Note de contenu : TABLE OF CONTENTS:
• What is Reitox?
• Who are members of the Reitox network?
• What is the Reitox network’s main mission?
• Is there a difference between a national focal point and a national drugs observatory?
• What are the functions of Reitox national focal points at European level?
• What are the functions of Reitox national focal points at national level?
• How is Reitox managed?
• How should a national focal point be structured?
• What types of information should Reitox members provide to the EMCDDA and when?
• How many staff members should work in a national focal point and what qualifications do they need?
• How are Reitox national focal points financed?
• What is the ‘Reitox Academy’?
• Who can benefit from Reitox national focal points’ expertise at national level and how?
• What is the added value in joining the Reitox network for non‐EU countries?
• How can my country join the Reitox network?
• Where can I find the contact details for Reitox members?
Cote : OEDT-20.5 Lien : http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/brochures/rtxfaq Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=69537
EMCDDA_ReitoxFAQs.pdfAdobe Acrobat PDF
Report on the risk assessment of mephedrone in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances / R. SEDEFOV ; A. GALLEGOSPermalinkPermalinkDrug offences: sentencing and other outcomes / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkPolydrug use: patterns and responses / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkEMCDDA Conference proceedings: Identifying Europe's information needs for effective drug policy / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkPrevention of addictive behaviours / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkPermalinkEuropean drug prevention quality standards: a quick guide / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkCommunities That Care (CTC): a comprehensive prevention approach for communities / OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)PermalinkHospital emergency presentations and acute drug toxicity in Europe. Update from the Euro-DEN Plus research group and the EMCDDA / Euro-DEN Research Group ; OEDT = EMCDDA (Lisbonne, Portugal)Permalink