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Drug and Alcohol Dependence . Vol.170Mention de date : January 2017
Paru le : 01/01/2017
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The design of medical marijuana laws and adolescent use and heavy use of marijuana: Analysis of 45 states from 1991 to 2011 / J. JOHNSON ; D. HODGKIN ; S. K. HARRIS in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.170 (January 2017)
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.170 (January 2017) . - 1-8
Titre : The design of medical marijuana laws and adolescent use and heavy use of marijuana: Analysis of 45 states from 1991 to 2011 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. JOHNSON ; D. HODGKIN ; S. K. HARRIS Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 1-8 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
CANNABIS ; LEGALISATION ; USAGE THERAPEUTIQUE ; ADOLESCENT ; EVOLUTION ; ABUS ; PREVALENCE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Objectives: To assess the association between U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML), the most liberal category of marijuana policies before legalization, their specific provisions, and adolescent past-30-day use and heavy marijuana use.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study used state Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data collected during 1991-2011 from 45 states (N = 715,014) to examine MML effects, taking advantage of heterogeneity across states in MML status and design. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for state and year effects, and youth demographics.
Results: Unadjusted analyses found that MMLs were associated with higher rates of adolescent past-30-day marijuana use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval, [(CI) = 1.03, 1.13]) and heavy marijuana use (OR = 1.12, [CI = 1.05, 1.21]). However, analyses adjusting for state/year effects found a 7% lower odds of use (OR = 0.99, [CI = 0.98, 0.999]) and no difference in heavy use. In the adjusted models, years since MML enactment (OR = 0.93, [CI = 0.86, 0.99]) and MML inclusion of more liberalized provisions (OR = 0.98, [CI = 0.96, 0.998]) were associated with slightly lowered odds of past-30-day marijuana use. Conversely, allowance for ?2.5 usable marijuana ounces was associated with higher past-30-day marijuana use odds (OR = 1.21, [CI = 1.09, 1.34]) and a voluntary vs. mandatory patient registration with higher odds of both past-30-day use (OR = 1.41, [CI = 1.28, 1.56]) and heavy use (OR = 1.23, [CI = 1.08, 1.40]).
Conclusions: MML enactment, years since enactment, and inclusion of more liberalized provisions were not associated with increased adolescent marijuana use in this dataset after adjusting for state and year effects; however, higher possession limits and a voluntary registration were. It is possible that state norms are the impetus for MML enactment.
Crude current marijuana and heavy marijuana use rates higher in medical marijuana law (MML) states.
Decreased odds of current marijuana use with MMLs with state fixed effects.
Decreased odds of current marijuana use with years since MML enactment.
Increased odds of current marijuana use with higher possession limits.
Increased odds of current marijuana use with a voluntary patient registration.
Affiliation : Institute for Behavioral Health, Heller School of Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=78612[article]The widening gender gap in marijuana use prevalence in the U.S. during a period of economic change, 2002-2014 / H. CARLINER ; P. M. MAURO ; Q. L. BROWN ; D. SHMULEWITZ ; R. RAHIM-JUWEL ; A. L. SARVET ; M. M. WALL ; S. S. MARTINS ; G. CARLINER ; D. S. HASIN in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.170 (January 2017)
in Drug and Alcohol Dependence > Vol.170 (January 2017) . - 51-58
Titre : The widening gender gap in marijuana use prevalence in the U.S. during a period of economic change, 2002-2014 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : H. CARLINER ; P. M. MAURO ; Q. L. BROWN ; D. SHMULEWITZ ; R. RAHIM-JUWEL ; A. L. SARVET ; M. M. WALL ; S. S. MARTINS ; G. CARLINER ; D. S. HASIN Année de publication : 2017 Article en page(s) : 51-58 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
CANNABIS ; PREVALENCE ; EVOLUTION ; DIFFERENCE DE GENRE ; ECONOMIE ; ETUDE TRANSVERSALE ; SEXE ; LEGALISATION
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Aim: Concurrently with increasingly permissive attitudes towards marijuana use and its legalization, the prevalence of marijuana use has increased in recent years in the U.S. Substance use is generally more prevalent in men than women, although for alcohol, the gender gap is narrowing. However, information is lacking on whether time trends in marijuana use differ by gender, or whether socioeconomic status in the context of the Great Recession may affect these changes.
Methods: Using repeated cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002-2014), we examined changes over time in prevalence of past-year marijuana use by gender, and whether gender differences varied across income levels. After empirically determining a change point in use in 2007, we used logistic regression to test interaction terms including time, gender, and income level.
Results: Prevalence of marijuana use increased for both men (+4.0%) and women (+2.7%) from 2002 to 2014, with all of the increase occurring from 2007 to 2014. Increases were greater for men, leading to a widening of the gender gap over time (p < 0.001). This divergence occurred primarily due to increased prevalence among men in the lowest income level (+6.2%) from 2007 to 2014.
Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with other studies documenting increased substance use during times of economic insecurity, especially among men. Corresponding with the Great Recession and lower employment rate beginning in 2007, low-income men showed the greatest increases in marijuana use during this period, leading to a widening of the gender gap in prevalence of marijuana use over time.
Prevalence of marijuana use increased in U.S. men and women from 2002 to 2014.
Men use marijuana more than women, and this gender gap widened over time.
The greatest increase was in low-income men after the Great Recession (2007-2014).
Consistent with studies of higher substance use in men due to economic insecurity.
Affiliation : Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=78613[article]