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Auteur R. PETO
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21st-Century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States / P. JHA ; C. RAMASUNDARAHETTIGE ; V. LANDSMAN ; B. ROSTRON ; M. THUN ; R. N. ANDERSON ; T. McAFEE ; R. PETO in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.368, n°4 (January 24, 2013)
in New England Journal of Medicine > Vol.368, n°4 (January 24, 2013) . - 341-350
Titre : 21st-Century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : P. JHA ; C. RAMASUNDARAHETTIGE ; V. LANDSMAN ; B. ROSTRON ; M. THUN ; R. N. ANDERSON ; T. McAFEE ; R. PETO Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 341-350 Note générale : Edirotial: New evidence that cigarette smoking remains the most important health hazard. Schroeder S.A., p. 389-390 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; ABSTINENCE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; BENEFICE ; ESPERANCE DE VIE ; MORTALITE ; COHORTE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ; NON FUMEUR ; SEXE ; AGE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : Background: Extrapolation from studies in the 1980s suggests that smoking causes 25% of deaths among women and men 35 to 69 years of age in the United States. Nationally representative measurements of the current risks of smoking and the benefits of cessation at various ages are unavailable.
Methods: We obtained smoking and smoking-cessation histories from 113,752 women and 88,496 men 25 years of age or older who were interviewed between 1997 and 2004 in the U.S. National Health Interview Survey and related these data to the causes of deaths that occurred by December 31, 2006 (8236 deaths in women and 7479 in men). Hazard ratios for death among current smokers, as compared with those who had never smoked, were adjusted for age, educational level, adiposity, and alcohol consumption.
Results: For participants who were 25 to 79 years of age, the rate of death from any cause among current smokers was about three times that among those who had never smoked (hazard ratio for women, 3.0; 99% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 3.3; hazard ratio for men, 2.8; 99% CI, 2.4 to 3.1). Most of the excess mortality among smokers was due to neoplastic, vascular, respiratory, and other diseases that can be caused by smoking. The probability of surviving from 25 to 79 years of age was about twice as great in those who had never smoked as in current smokers (70% vs. 38% among women and 61% vs. 26% among men). Life expectancy was shortened by more than 10 years among the current smokers, as compared with those who had never smoked. Adults who had quit smoking at 25 to 34, 35 to 44, or 45 to 54 years of age gained about 10, 9, and 6 years of life, respectively, as compared with those who continued to smoke.
Conclusions: Smokers lose at least one decade of life expectancy, as compared with those who have never smoked. Cessation before the age of 40 years reduces the risk of death associated with continued smoking by about 90%.
Refs biblio. : 30 Affiliation : Center for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=71541[article]Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case-control study of 48,557 adult deaths / ZARIDZE D. in Lancet (The), Vol.373, n°9682 (Jun 27, 2009)
in Lancet (The) > Vol.373, n°9682 (Jun 27, 2009) . - 2201-2214
Titre : Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case-control study of 48,557 adult deaths Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : ZARIDZE D. ; P. BRENNAN ; J. BOREHAM ; BORODA A. ; KARPOV R. ; LAZAREV A. ; KONOBEEVSKAYA I. ; IGITOV V. ; TERECHOVA T. ; P. BOFFETTA ; R. PETO Année de publication : 2009 Article en page(s) : 2201-2214 Note générale : Lancet (The), 2009, 373, (9682), 2201-2214
Editorial: 'Alcohol and harm reduction in Russia', p.2171. Comments: 'Alcohol: a global health priority', Beaglehole R. & Bonita R., p.2173-4 ; 'Action needed to tackle a global drink problem', Gilmore I., p.2174-6 ; 'A case study in how harmful alcohol consumption can be', Rehm J. & Room R., p.2176-7.
Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; CAUSE DE DECES ; MORTALITE ; ETUDE RETROSPECTIVE ; AGE ; SEXE ; PATHOLOGIE ; INTOXICATION ; ACCIDENT ; EVOLUTION
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Résumé :
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an important determinant of the high and fluctuating adult mortality rates in Russia, but cause-specific detail is lacking. Our case-control study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on male and female cause-specific mortality. METHODS: In three Russian industrial cities with typical 1990s mortality patterns (Tomsk, Barnaul, Biysk), the addresses of 60,416 residents who had died at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2001 were visited in 2001-05. Family members were present for 50,066 decedents; for 48,557 (97%), the family gave proxy information on the decedents' past alcohol use and on potentially confounding factors. Cases (n=43,082) were those certified as dying from causes we judged beforehand might be substantially affected by alcohol or tobacco; controls were the other 5475 decedents. Case versus control relative risks (RRs; calculated as odds ratios by confounder-adjusted logistic regression) were calculated in ever-drinkers, defining the reference category by two criteria: usual weekly consumption always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles of vodka (or equivalent in total alcohol content) and maximum consumption of spirits in 1 day always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles.  FINDINGS: In men, the three causes accounting for the most alcohol-associated deaths were accidents and violence (RR 5.94, 95% CI 5.35-6.59, in the highest consumption category), alcohol poisoning (21.68, 17.94-26.20), and acute ischaemic heart disease other than myocardial infarction (3.04, 2.73-3.39), which includes some misclassified alcohol poisoning. There were significant excesses of upper aerodigestive tract cancer (3.48, 2.84-4.27) and liver cancer (2.11, 1.64-2.70). Another five disease groups had RRs of more than 3.00 in the highest alcohol category: tuberculosis (4.14, 3.44-4.98), pneumonia (3.29, 2.83-3.83), liver disease (6.21, 5.16-7.47), pancreatic disease (6.69, 4.98-9.00), and ill-specified conditions (7.74, 6.48-9.25). Although drinking was less common in women, the RRs associated with it were generally more extreme. After correction for reporting errors, alcohol-associated excesses accounted for 52% of all study deaths at ages 15-54 years (men 8182 [59%] of 13968, women 1565 [33%] of 4751) and 18% of those at 55-74 years (men 3944 [22%] of 17,536, women 1493 [12%] of 12 302). Allowance for under-representation of extreme drinkers would further increase alcohol-associated proportions. Large fluctuations in mortality from these ten strongly alcohol-associated causes were the main determinants of recent fluctuations in overall mortality in the study region and in Russia as a whole. INTERPRETATION: Alcohol-attributable mortality varies by year; in several recent years, alcohol was a cause of more than half of all Russian deaths at ages 15-54 years. Alcohol accounts for most of the large fluctuations in Russian mortality, and alcohol and tobacco account for the large difference in adult mortality between Russia and western Europe. (Author' s abstract)
Refs biblio. : 34 Affiliation : Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, N N Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Centre, Moscow. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Russie. Russia. Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : Abonnement Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=51532[article]Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults / M. J. THUN in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.337, n°24 (December 11, 1997)
in New England Journal of Medicine > Vol.337, n°24 (December 11, 1997) . - 1705-1714
Titre : Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. J. THUN ; R. PETO ; A. D. LOPEZ ; J. H. MONACO ; S. J. HENLEY ; HEATH ; J. R. C. W. ; R. DOLL Année de publication : 1997 Article en page(s) : 1705-1714 Présentation : graph. Note générale : • Editorial: "Hazards and benefits of alcohol", p. 1763-1764, J.D. Potter
• Letter to the Editor + Author's reply: NEJM, 1998; 338(19):1385-6.
Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE ; ALCOOL ; DEPENDANCE ; MORTALITE ; USAGE REGULIER ; CONSOMMATION ; PERSONNE AGEE ; ADULTE ; CIRRHOSE ; CANCER ; APPAREIL CARDIOVASCULAIRE ; TABAC ; COMPARAISON
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Résumé : Background - Alcohol consumption has both adverse and beneficial effects on survival. We examined the balance of these in a large prospective study of mortality among U.S. adults.
Methods - Of 490, 000 men and women (mean age, 56 years; range, 30 to 104) who reported their alcohol and tobacco use in 1982, 46,000 died during nine years of follow-up. We compared cause-specific death rates and rates of death from all causes across categories of base-line alcohol consumption, adjusting for other risk factors, and related drinking and smoking habits to the cumulative probability of dying between the ages of 35 and 69 years.
Results - Causes of death associated with drinking were cirrhosis and alcoholism; cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, pharynx, larynx, and liver combined; breast cancer in women; and injuries and other external causes in men. The mortality from breast cancer was 30 percent higher among women reporting at least one drink daily than among nondrinkers (relative risk, 1.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6). The rates of death from all cardiovascular diseases were 30 to 40 percent lower among men (relative risk, 0.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 0.8) and women (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.7) reporting at least one drink daily than among nondrinkers, with little relation to the level of consumption. The overall death rates were lowest among men and women reporting about one drink daily. Mortality from all causes increased with heavier drinking, particularly among adults under age 60 with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol consumption was associated with a small reduction in the overall risk of death in middle age (ages 35 to 69), whereas smoking approximately doubled this risk.
Conclusions - In this middle-aged and elderly population, moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduced overall mortality. The benefit depended in part on age and background cardiovascular risk and was far smaller than the large increase in risk produced by tobacco.
Refs biblio. : 38 Affiliation : Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta / Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, England / Programme on Substance Abuse, WHO, Geneva Suisse. Switzerland. Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Lien : http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199712113372401 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=57375[article]Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco / P. JHA ; R. PETO in New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.370, n°1 (January 2, 2014)
in New England Journal of Medicine > Vol.370, n°1 (January 2, 2014) . - 60-68
Titre : Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : P. JHA ; R. PETO Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 60-68 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; SANTE PUBLIQUE ; TAXE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; ESPERANCE DE VIE ; ABSTINENCE ; MORTALITE ; PRIX ; EFFICACITE ; INTERVENTION
Discipline : SAN Santé publique / Public health Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : On the basis of current smoking patterns, with a global average of about 50% of young men and 10% of young women becoming smokers and relatively few stopping, annual tobacco-attributable deaths will rise from about 5 million in 2010 to more than 10 million a few decades hence, as the young smokers of today reach middle and old age. This increase is due partly to population growth and partly to the fact that, in some large populations, generations in which few people smoked substantial numbers of cigarettes throughout adult life are being succeeded by generations in which many people did so. There were about 100 million deaths from tobacco in the 20th century, most in developed countries. If current smoking patterns persist, tobacco will kill about 1 billion people this century, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. About half of these deaths will occur before 70 years of age.
The 2013 World Health Assembly called on governments to reduce the prevalence of smoking by about a third by 2025, which would avoid more than 200 million deaths from tobacco during the remainder of the century. Price is the key determinant of smoking uptake and cessation. Worldwide, a reduction of about a third could be achieved by doubling the inflation-adjusted price of cigarettes, which in many low- and middle-income countries could be achieved by tripling the specific excise tax on tobacco. Other interventions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the WHO six-point MPOWER initiative could also help reduce consumption and could help make substantial increases in specific excise taxes on tobacco politically acceptable. Without large price increases, a reduction in smoking by a third would be difficult to achieve.
The WHO has also called for countries to achieve a 25% reduction between 2008 and 2025 in the probability of dying from noncommunicable disease between 30 and 70 years of age. Widespread cessation of smoking is the most important way to help achieve this goal, because smoking throughout adulthood substantially increases mortality from several major noncommunicable diseases (and from tuberculosis).
To help achieve a large reduction in smoking in the 2010s or 2020s, governments, health professionals, journalists, and other opinion leaders should appreciate the full eventual hazards of smoking cigarettes from early adulthood, the substantial benefits of stopping at various ages, the eventual magnitude of the epidemic of tobacco-attributable deaths if current smoking patterns persist, and the effectiveness of tax increases and other interventions to reduce cigarette consumption. [Extract]
Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 63 Affiliation : Center for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Lien : http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1308383 Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=73593[article]Mortality and alcohol consumption. Non-drinkers shouldn't be used as baseline / A. G. SHAPER
Titre : Mortality and alcohol consumption. Non-drinkers shouldn't be used as baseline Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : A. G. SHAPER ; R. DOLL ; R. PETO Année de publication : 1995 Importance : 325 ; 470 Note générale : British Medical Journal, 1995, 310, (6975), 325, 470
Un commentaire de l'article A01610 A suivi d'une réponse des auteurs
Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
ALCOOL ; MORTALITE ; CONSOMMATION ; USAGE REGULIER ; ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE DESCRIPTIVE ; SEXE MASCULIN ; MEDECIN ; TABAC
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Refs biblio. : 7 Affiliation : Royaume-Uni. United Kingdom. Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : A01610 B Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=57337Mortality from smoking in developed countries, 1950-2000. Indirect estimates from national statistics / R. PETOPermalinkMortality from smoking in developed countries: 1950-2005 (or later) - FRANCE / R. PETO ; A. D. LOPEZ ; J. BOREHAM ; M. THUNPermalinkMortality in relation to alcohol consumption : a prospective study among male British doctors / R. DOLL in International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.34 n°1 (2005)PermalinkMortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors / R. DOLLPermalinkMortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors / R. DOLLPermalinkSmoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies / R. PETO ; S. C. DARBY ; H. DEO ; P. SILCOCKS ; E. WHITLEY ; R. DOLL in British Medical Journal, Vol.321, n°7257 (5 August 2000)PermalinkThe 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK / K. PIRIE ; R. PETO ; G. K. REEVES ; J. GREEN ; V. BERAL in Lancet (The), Vol.381, n°9861 (Jan 12, 2013)PermalinkTobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys / G. A. GIOVINO ; S. A. MIRZA ; J. M. SAMET ; P. C. GUPTA ; M. J. JARVIS ; N. BHALA ; R. PETO ; W. ZATONSKI ; J. HSIA ; J. MORTON ; K. M. PALIPUDI ; S. ASMA in Lancet (The), Vol.380, n°9842 (Aug 18, 2012)Permalink