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Auteur S. SCHNEIDER
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Analysis of illicit cocaine and heroin samples seized in Luxembourg from 2005-2010 / S. SCHNEIDER ; F. MEYS in Forensic Science International, Vol.212, n°1-3 (10 October 2011)
in Forensic Science International > Vol.212, n°1-3 (10 October 2011) . - 242-246
Titre : Analysis of illicit cocaine and heroin samples seized in Luxembourg from 2005-2010 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. SCHNEIDER ; F. MEYS Année de publication : 2011 Article en page(s) : 242-246 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
SAISIE ; COCAINE ; HEROINE ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; PURETE ; ADDITIFS ; EVOLUTION ; TOXICOLOGIE
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : This article discusses drug purity, frequency of appearance and concentration ranges of adulterants of 471 illicit cocaine and 962 illicit heroin samples seized in Luxembourg from January 2005 to December 2010. For cocaine samples the mean concentration was lowest in 2009 (43.2%) and highest in 2005 (54.7%) but no clear trend could be observed during the last 6 years. 14 different adulterants have been detected in cocaine samples, from which phenacetin has been the most abundant in terms of frequency of appearance and concentration until 2009. In 2010 the veterinary antihelminthic drug levamisole has become the most abundant adulterant detected in cocaine samples, its concentrations however remained low (1.5-4.1%). The mean heroin concentration was 26.6% in 2005, a decline has been observed in 2006 and the concentrations have been relatively stable since then (15.8-17.4%). Paracetamol and caffeine were by far the most abundant adulterants detected in heroin samples. Refs biblio. : 21 Affiliation : Laboratoire National de Santé, Division de Toxicologie, Université du Luxembourg, Luxembourg Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=67519[article]Vaping as a catalyst for smoking? An initial model on the initiation of electronic cigarette use and the transition to tobacco smoking among adolescents / S. SCHNEIDER ; K. DIEHL in Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol.18, n°5 (May 2016)
in Nicotine and Tobacco Research > Vol.18, n°5 (May 2016) . - 647-653
Titre : Vaping as a catalyst for smoking? An initial model on the initiation of electronic cigarette use and the transition to tobacco smoking among adolescents Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : S. SCHNEIDER ; K. DIEHL Année de publication : 2016 Article en page(s) : 647-653 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
TABAC ; CIGARETTE ELECTRONIQUE ; INITIATION ; MODELE ; ADOLESCENT ; THEORIE DE L'ESCALADE ; TRAJECTOIRE
Discipline : SHS Sciences humaines et sociales / Human and social sciences Domaine : Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : INTRODUCTION: The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents is growing worldwide. A more accurate model than the much discussed but inadequate Gateway Hypothesis is needed to explain some adolescents' initial preference for e-cigarettes over tobacco cigarettes, as well as any transition from e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking. Our aim was to summarize the diffuse fear that adolescents will be indirectly encouraged to begin smoking tobacco via the use of e-cigarettes and to systematize the disparate causal hypotheses used thus far in relevant literature.
METHODS: We summarized the vague and fragmented hypotheses formulated thus far in literature on both trajectories from abstinence to e-cigarette use and from there to tobacco smoking into a set of empirically testable hypotheses and organized them into a comprehensive model.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that the perceived health risks, specific product characteristics (such as taste, price and inconspicuous use), and higher levels of acceptance among peers and others potentially make e-cigarettes initially more attractive to adolescents than tobacco cigarettes. Later, increasing familiarity with nicotine could lead to the reevaluation of both electronic and tobacco cigarettes and subsequently to a potential transition to tobacco smoking. The suggested "catalyst model" takes variations in the nicotine content of e-cigarettes as well as the dual use of different substances into account.
CONCLUSION: Our model provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking which, after being tested in empirical studies, could lead to the formulation of concrete recommendations for healthcare intervention and prevention measures.
IMPLICATIONS: We developed a model that provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking.
Sous-type de document : Revue de la littérature / Literature review Refs biblio. : 50 Affiliation : Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine (MIPH), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=77164[article]