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14C analyses quantify time lag between coca leaf harvest and street-level seizure of cocaine / J. R. EHLERINGER ; J. F. CASALE ; J. E. BARNETTE ; X. XU ; M. J. LOTT ; J. HURLEY in Forensic Science International, Vol.214, n°1-3 (10 January 2012)
in Forensic Science International > Vol.214, n°1-3 (10 January 2012) . - 7-12
Titre : 14C analyses quantify time lag between coca leaf harvest and street-level seizure of cocaine Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : J. R. EHLERINGER ; J. F. CASALE ; J. E. BARNETTE ; X. XU ; M. J. LOTT ; J. HURLEY Année de publication : 2012 Article en page(s) : 7-12 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
COCA ; COCAINE ; ANALYSE CHIMIQUE ; PRODUCTION ; SAISIE ; MESURES QUANTITATIVES ; DIFFUSION DES PRODUITS
Discipline : MAR Marché de la drogue / Drug market Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs Résumé : Measurements were made on the natural abundance 14C content (14C) of cocaine specimens seized between 2003 and 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which 14C analyses could quantify the "age" of recent cocaine seizures. Here "age" of a seized cocaine specimen is defined as the time period between when a coca leaf was harvested in South America and its seizure as cocaine at either the international or domestic street levels. Based on 14C analyses of seizure specimens, there were no statistically significant differences in the ages of domestic cocaine HCl and cocaine base specimens seized on the streets in different locations across the United States. Between 2007 and 2009, the average age of a street-level cocaine seizure in the United States was 24.6 ± 1.1 months. Cocaine shipment seizures that were in excess of 150 kg during this time period had an average age of 18.2 ± 1.4 months, whereas smaller shipment seizures were significantly older with an average age of 22.3 ± 0.6 months. Analyses of the largest cocaine shipment seizures suggested that these seizures were composed of specimens with different ages, possibly representing accumulations over as much as a 31-month period.
• Columbian drug traffickers require ∼24 months between coca leaf growth and the arrival of cocaine in the United States.
• Seizures of cocaine base and cocaine HCL were not statistically different in age.
• Foreign and domestically seized cocaine were not statistically different in age.
• Seizures of large cocaine shipments were statistically younger than small cocaine shipments.
Refs biblio. : 20 Affiliation : Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=68534[article]Cigarette, cigar, and marijuana use among high school students - United States, 1997-2013 / I. V. ROLLE ; S. M. KENNEDY ; I. AGAKU ; S. E. JONES ; R. BUNNELL ; R. CARABALLO ; X. XU ; G. SCHAUER ; T. McAFEE in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Vol.64, n°40 (October 16, 2015)
in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) > Vol.64, n°40 (October 16, 2015) . - 1136-1141
Titre : Cigarette, cigar, and marijuana use among high school students - United States, 1997-2013 Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : I. V. ROLLE ; S. M. KENNEDY ; I. AGAKU ; S. E. JONES ; R. BUNNELL ; R. CARABALLO ; X. XU ; G. SCHAUER ; T. McAFEE Année de publication : 2015 Article en page(s) : 1136-1141 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
TABAC ; CANNABIS ; ENSEIGNEMENT SECONDAIRE ; ADOLESCENT ; EVOLUTION ; CIGARETTE ; CIGARE ; PREVALENCE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Drogues illicites / Illicit drugs ; Tabac / Tobacco Résumé : What is already known on this topic?
Since 2010, the proportion of U.S. 12th grade students who reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days (21.4%) has surpassed the proportion reporting use of cigarettes during the preceding 30 days (19.2%).
What is added by this report?
During 1997-2013, the proportion of white, black, and Hispanic high school students overall who were exclusive cigarette or cigar users decreased 64%, from 20.5% to 7.4%. The proportion of white, black, and Hispanic students who were exclusive marijuana users more than doubled from 4.2% to 10.2%, and among cigarette or cigar users, marijuana use increased, with considerable increases identified among black and Hispanic students toward the end of the study period.
What are the implications for public health practice?
Despite significant declines since 1997, approximately 30% of white, black, and Hispanic U.S. high school students were current users of cigarettes, cigars, or marijuana in 2013. Policy and programmatic efforts might benefit from integrated approaches that focus on reducing the use of tobacco and marijuana among youths.
Refs biblio. : 10 Affiliation : Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, USA Lien : http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6440a2.htm Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=76416[article]Predictors of recall error in self-report of age at alcohol use onset / M. D. LIVINGSTON ; X. XU ; K. A. KOMRO in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol.77, n°5 (September 2016)
in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs > Vol.77, n°5 (September 2016) . - 811-818
Titre : Predictors of recall error in self-report of age at alcohol use onset Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : M. D. LIVINGSTON ; X. XU ; K. A. KOMRO Année de publication : 2016 Article en page(s) : 811-818 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus Géographique
ALCOOL ; FACTEUR PREDICTIF ; AUTOEVALUATION ; INITIATION ; AGE ; ADOLESCENT ; ETUDE PROSPECTIVE ; ETUDE RETROSPECTIVE ; VALIDITE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Alcool / Alcohol Résumé : OBJECTIVE: The present study examined factors associated with recall error in the measurement of alcohol use onset and whether there was a tendency toward earlier or later self-reported age at alcohol use onset.
METHOD: This study estimated the effect of predictors on the presence and direction of recall error for age at alcohol use onset. The sample (n = 1,044) was from an existing longitudinal alcohol prevention trial in urban Chicago. Estimates were derived from a series of logistic regression models comparing agreement between a retrospective and a prospective measure of age at alcohol use onset.
RESULTS: Eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch in 6th grade, alcohol use in 6th grade, cigarette use in 12th grade, and alcohol use in 12th grade were significantly associated with recall error of age at alcohol use onset. Self-reported substance use (alcohol and tobacco) in 12th grade was also found to predict a later self-reported age at alcohol use onset when recalled.
CONCLUSIONS: Those most at risk for the negative outcomes associated with early alcohol initiation are also those most likely to misreport their age at alcohol use onset.
Affiliation : Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA Cote : Abonnement Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=77745[article]Prevalence of and risk factors for intimate partner violence in China / X. XU
Titre : Prevalence of and risk factors for intimate partner violence in China Titre traduit : (Prévalence et facteurs de risques de violence intra-conjugale en Chine) Type de document : Périodique Auteurs : X. XU ; ZHU F. ; OCAMPO P. ; KOENIG M. A. ; MOCK V. ; J. CAMPBELL Année de publication : 2005 Importance : 78-85 Note générale : American Journal of Public Health, 2005, 95, (1), 78-85 Langues : Anglais Mots-clés : Thésaurus TOXIBASE
VIOLENCE ; COUPLE ; PREVALENCE ; FACTEUR DE RISQUE ; ALCOOL ; PSYCHOTROPES ; AGRESSIVITE
Discipline : EPI Epidémiologie / Epidemiology Domaine : Plusieurs produits / Several products Résumé :
Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of and risk factors for intimate partner violence in China. Methods. Our cross-sectional, comparative prevalence study used a face-to-face survey of randomly selected women attending an urban outpatient gynecological clinic at a major teaching hospital in Fuzhou, China. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for intimate partner violence. Results. Of the 600 women interviewed, the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence and violence taking place within the year before the interview was 43% and 26%, respectively. For lifetime intimate partner violence, partners who had extramarital affairs and who refused to give respondents money were the strongest independent predictors. For intimate partner violence taking place within the year before the interview, frequent quarreling was the strongest predictor. Conclusions. Intimate partner violence is prevalent in China, with strong associations with male patriarchal values and conflict resolutions. Efforts to reduce intimate partner violence should be given high priority in health care settings where women can be reached. (Author' s abstract)
Refs biblio. : 60 Affiliation : Covance Health Economics and Outcomes Services, Inc, 9801 Washingtonian Blvd, 9th Floor, Gaithersburg, MD 20878. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Etats-Unis. United States. Numéro Toxibase : 1301052 Centre Emetteur : 13 OFDT Cote : ABONNEMENT Permalink : http://bdoc.ofdt.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=56552